Introduction The study of '''storytelling organizations''', treats the collective activities of storytelling organization as the level of analysis. Storytelling is actually several genres that inter-relate: [[narrative|story]], [[storytelling]] and antenarrative within the context of an organization. Morson (1994) looks at retrospective (backshadowing), more emergent (sideshadowing), and future-oriented (foreshadowing) of storytelling. This suggests an extension of Weickian sensemaking from retrospective, to emergent in living story relationality in more immediate present, and the future-shaping antenarrative (Boje, 2008a, 2011).
Work on [[storytelling organization]] as its own level of analysis began in 1991 <ref>[[David Boje]], Boje, D.M. "Organizations as Storytelling Networks: A Study of Story Performance in an Office-Supply Firm," Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 36, 1991: 106-126. </ref>. McCloskey (1990) asserts that economists use narratives and stories to legitimate economic theories about the recurrences of economic cycles:
"If the stories of past business cycles could predict the future there would be no surprises, and by that fact no business cycles" (McCloskey, 1990: 96).
Aristotle (350 BCE) defined narrative by its elements (plot, character, theme, dialog, rhythm, and spectacle) that has a beginning, middle, and end. Narrative for millennia has required story to be “ . . . a whole . . . a whole is that which has beginning, middle, and end” (Aristotle, 350 BCE: 1450b: 25, p. 233). Bakhtin (1973: 12), for example says, “Narrative genres are always enclosed in a solid and unshakable monological framework” and this is in contrast the more "dialogical manner of story" (1981: 60). Not all narratives are linear, or monological. See, for examples works by James Joyce that are [[nonlinear narrative]]. Yet, much of the narrative work in organizations does focus on linear sequence plots, and this may be a good performance consequence. Czarniawska (2004), for example, has argued convincingly that higher performing long-lived organizations have petrified narratives that embed cultural values and do not change over time or circumstance. Besides Bakhtin, de Certeau (1984) and Derrida (1979: 94) see value in a contrast between narratives and story. Weick's (1995) approach to narrative is that it has a beginning, middle, and end, and is retrospective [backward looking] sensemaking.
Gabriel (2000) for example asserts that story is something more than narrative, in that it is emotive and expressive.
Antenarrative is a word and concept I invented (Boje, 2001a) and has been empirically studied in refereed-journal publications by authors such as Barge (2004), Dalcher and Devin (2003), Collins and Rainwater (2005), Erickson et al (2005, 2006), Vickers (2005), and Yolles (2007), and Vaara, E., & Tienari, forthcoming in Journal of Organization Science).
Antenarrative is defined as a bet on the future pattern, in (more or less) authentic scenario of event-space. It is also a before narrative that serves as a hypothesis of the trajectory of unfolding events that avoids the pitfalls of premature narrative closure (Boje, 2001a, 2007, 2008).
Antenarratives are being studied in four forms:
4. Assemblage Rhizomes
Morson (1994: 63-66), for example, describes the vortex spiral. This is an antenarratives-spiral where there is more freedom of movements and choice away from the center than in a linear-antenarrative, or a cyclic-antenarrative with obdurate stages or sequences that recur. Rhizome antenarratives, on the other hand, are nonlinear iterative processes that do not behave as stable linearity or cyclic-antenarratives (Deleuze & Guattari, 1987). In accounting, Bougen and Young (2000) looked at the rhizomatic processes of bank fraud and auditors’ attempts to detect bank fraud. Auditors using linear analyzes could not detect an already escaping present. Boje and colleagues’ [[storytelling organization]] work traces patterns of rhizomatic antenarrative clustering in the Enron crisis (Boje & Rosile, 2002, 2003; Boje, Rosile, Durant, & Luhman, 2004; Smith, Boje, & McClendes, 2010).
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