What is Antenarrative? by David Boje (Sep 10, 2001; updated Jan 28, 2012)

==CONTENTS==

INTRODUCTION - This is a page devoted to the social science scholarship on the theory, methodology, and practice of 'antenarrative' and 'critical antenarratology.' There are four types of antenarratives: linear, cyclic, spiral, and assemblage (rhizome). The concept was first theorized by David Boje in 2001, and in the succeeding decade has been the subject of leading social science journals including, Management COmmunication Quarterly, Organization Science, Organization Studies, Women's Studies, and many other fine journals. At the same time there has been active resistance to all mentions of antenarrative theory, method, and practice in Wikipedia by those I affectionately call, the "Antenarrative Police." The purpose of this site is to set the history straight and provide a place to do some basic antenarrative theory work.

Part I: WHAT IS ANTENARRATIVE?

The first ever use of the term antenarrative is in my book (Boje 2001a) Narrative Methods for Organization and Communication Research (London: Sage). In 2001 I also delivered two papers in Europe on antenarrative (Boje, 2001b,c). In 2002, I also developed the theory in a keynote address to the Discourse Conference in a paper I delivered on Enron antenarratives, that became the basis for a coauthored article in Organization Studies Journal (Boje, Rosile, Durant, & Luhman, 2004).

There has been increasing interest in antenarrative theory and research since my own theory building and research on antenarrative (Boje, 2001a,b,c, 2002) and my own subsequent work 2005, 2007a, b, c, 2008, forthcoming) and my work with colleagues (Boje & Rosile, 2002, 2003; Boje, Rosile, Durant, & Luhman, 2004; Boje, Rosile & Gardner, 2007), such as important work done with the initial our formulations (Barge 2004; Collins & Rainwater, 2005; Durant, Gardner, Taylor, 2006; Vickers, 2005; Yolles, 2007) and most recently, Grow (2009); Vaara and Tienari (2011 Organization Science); and the 2011 Storytelling and the Future of Organizations: An Antenarrative Handbook (Boje, 2011a, NY/London: Routledge Press).

Here is the derivation of antenarrative theory.

I gave "antenarrative" a double meaning (Boje, 2001a). First, as being before and second as a bet. Antenarrative is "ante" to story and narrative. Used as an adverb, "ante" combined with "narrative" or "antenarrative" means earlier than narrative.

Ante is also a bet, something to do with gambling and speculation. The noun "ante" has an etymology dating to 1838 that is defined as "a poker stake usually put up before the deal to build the pot <the dealer called for a dollar ante>" (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). In horse racing, "ante-post" is a wager made on a horse before that day of the race. As a verb, it is anteing.

To me, narrative is not the same as (living) story. A "narrative" is something that is narrated in retrospective sensemaking (backward-looking), such as in definitions narrative sensemaking (Weick, 1995) or narrative as emplotment with beginning, middle and end (since Aristotle, 350 BCE). Living Story is an account of incidents or events and relationships to people in other living stories, all unfolding in-the-moment-of-Beingness (Bakhtin, 1990, 1993), but retro-narrative comes after and ads, more "plot" and tighter "coherence" reducing living variety to a line. Living stories, are what Bakhtin (1973: 60) calls "polylogic manner of the story." Derrida (1979: 99-100) also treats story and not the same phenomenon as narrative; story, for example,

Each "story" (and each occurrence of the word "story," (of itself), each story in the story) is part of the other, makes the other part (of itself), is at once larger and smaller than itself, includes itself without including (or comprehending) itself, identifies itself with itself even as it remains utterly different from its homonym Derrida (1979: 99-100).

Finally, story and narrative as difference (or Derridian differAnce) is being reclaimed indigenous scholars' work decolonizing Western narrative (Fixico, 2003; Sandoval, 2000). There are also gender differences being reclaimed, such as in the work of gender-telling (Gherardhi & Phoggio (2007). Male dominated institutions sort out gender differently in the interplay of living stories, and institutionalized narrative orders. These institutional narratives become hegemonic in their dominance of living story diversity. Antenarrating something different is problematic.

Now sometimes having a stabilized, or what Czarniawska (2004) calls a 'petrified narrative' is the basis of strong corporate culture. However, it can also prevent adaptability, such as the infamous refrain in Disney decision making and strategy meetings, after their founder died, "What would Walt do?" and a linear narrative would get told, that would prevent change.

Antenarrative can be a prospective sensemaking (looking-forward) to transform the future with storytelling by projecting the past lines into the future. The linear BME narrative and the cyclic antenarrative that just repeats a cycle of stages is prospective.

There is also the spiral and the rhizomatic assemblage that does not behave as a prospective antenarrative. Spiral antenarratives are “in the middle” and “in-between” (Boje, 2001: 293) refusing to attach linear beginning, middle, end (BME) coherence. Upward and downward spirals are antenarrative examples (Boje, 2007).

This three-ness of time is the essence of storytelling (narrative, living story, & antenarrative). Currie (1998) makes the point that narrative is a bit too eager to put storytelling into the past, and claims this is happening at an accelerated rate. If this is true, then narrative transforms present of living story networks to the past without much noticing, and in its future perfect sense, narrative looks back from the future in a linear path (BME).

In my macro work with antenarrative (Boje, 2007c) I identified four types of antenarrative: linear, cyclic, spiral and rhizomatic. Linear antenarrative examples in globalization are 'road to the top' and 'road to the bottom.' Cyclic examples are for example Plato's work in Republic, the cycle of Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, and Tyranny (which heads back to Timocracy). Nietzsche objected to such a cycle, preferring 'eternal return' of any of these, particularly tyranny, when the constellation of forces recurred. Rhizomatic antenarrative following rhizomatic theory of Deleuze and Guattari (1987) looks at the holographic aspects, at antenarrating in all directions (as in the rhizomatic shoot the moves above ground, the roots moving below ground, until an obstacle is encountered. Obstacles are grasps, moved, and even cracked. See http://peaceaware.com/vita/paper_pdfs/Boje%20(2008)%20Globalization%20Antenarratives.pdf

I develop practical uses for students in my small business seminar http://business.nmsu..edu/~dboje/sbc

For other practical examples of access to recent articles and papers See Antenarratives of McDonald's, McDonaldland, & McDonaldization website. Or see the Blog storytellingorganizations.blogspot.com/

ANTENARRATIVE is a "pre-narrative," and a "bet" (ante) that you can tell an antenarrative that will become a living story that is world-changing and transforming to narrative hegemony.  An antenarrative is a story that is NOT YET, and a BEFORE narrative.

Antenarrative has not yet enrolled its cast of characters. It has not yet become REAL-ized in the world of objects and processes and institutional systems. Antenarrative has not yet changed the context. Antenarrating means you are trying to recontextualize or decontextualize. Antenarratives depend upon an expanding sociometry, a growing network of actors to work in bits of context, to send the antenarrative along its way to becoming a story. Antenarratives seduce interests, enroll characters in continuous chains of dramatization; because it takes theatrics to real-ize the antenarrative, so it becomes narrative.  The antenarrative translates its contexts into its emerging cohesion. Antenarrative morphs as it travels, moves, and does its rhizomatics.

Antenarratology - is defined as the study of antenarratives in interplay with stories and narratives. Whereas retrospective narratives typically have beginnings, middles, and ends (BMEs) stories are more part of the living fabric of the social, more co-created, unfolding in the present moment of Being, and prospective into the future of the social. Critical antenarratology is a method to trace and deconstruct an ongoing interweaving antenarrating this is always composing and self-deconstructing.

Antenarratives collect events and characters into their psychic economy. Antenarrative flight continues as long as their is context left to transform. Antenarratives feed on new contexts, they consume contexts, they recontextualize. Antenarratives stay in flight until they become domesticated, or become Framed and tamed within some dominant storyline. Spreading an antenarrative seems as harmless as sharing a bit of urban legend, or passing along a tasty morsel of gossip. Yet antenarratives threaten to change the world. Antenarratives seduce us into complicity; we feel somehow compelled to pass them along into our personal networks. Every antenarrative has a story of its journey, but some we can not trace; some leave many marks along their path.

Antenarratives die. They unravel and re-ravel the contexts they traverse.  Antenarratives are really quite dangerous; they can stampede the herd. "The collective fear of a heard in flight is the oldest and perhaps commonest example of a crowd state" (Canetti, 1963: 309). Antenarratives definitely affect and infect crowds. Some change the rhythm of the crowd. Antenarratives can assemble crowds and disassemble hierarchies and propel some novel crowd into existence; they rally around the emerging antenarrative. 

Antenarratives are in motion, awake, always on the move, setting off along un-prescribed passageways. They seem to jumped across prohibited blocks.  Surrounding an antenarrative with prohibitions to its sharing, ignites its traverse.  Antenarratives change in composition as they traverse contexts and passageways. Antenarratives can split off elements, and incorporate new ones, as the tale extends with accumulated and dragged along debris. As Kierkegaard (1997: 306) posits, "life must be understood backwards. But then one forgets the other principle: that it must be lived forwards." This applies to Storytelling Organizations (Boje, 2008), since they are forever creating a collective memory of themselves in stories.

The Paradigm Differences over Antenarrative, Narrative, and Story - Yannis Gabriel (2000), Barbara Czarniawska (1997) and Boje (2001a) have paradigm differences. Gabriel thinks my terse stories and my fragmented antenarratives are not "proper" stories. I definitely agree with his point that story is something more than narrative, in its expressive and immediate experience qualities. Czarniawska (1997, 1998, 2004), like so many others (e.g. Russian Formalism) privileges narrative over story. In here 2004 book she does acknowledge the emergent sort of story sensemaking More ... see (Boje, Rosile, & Gardner, 2004

PART II ANTENARRATIVE EXAMPLES

Enron, for example, its antenarrating recruited and abandoned characters, themes, frames, dialog, and spectacles as Enron took flight to become the darling of the New Economy, then the monster lurking inside the abyss of its own collapse. At each turn, Enron's Antenarratives seemed to illuminate, but in the end the facade was all that remained. Antenarratives take on a speculative value since they are quite ironic; setting forth in reversals, shattering dualities, then aligning with superficialities. Antenarratives flee their possessors; ask Jeffrey Skilling and Kenneth Lay.  Enron was dragged kicking and screaming through all kinds of post-collapse spectacles; grand dramas of public inquiry took place in the Congressional hearings. Enron's global spectacle (the hero of the Internet Economy) become a megaspectacle (a set of scandals). Enron's succession of public spectacles were quite antenarrative; little pre-narrations seemed to catch fire in the public imagination; where is the sex scandal at Enron; Did the president know? Did Fastow know the off-the-balance-sheet partnerships was just a spectacle facade? Enron antenarratives were media currency, the obsessive interest of millions of spectators.  When the media glare dropped of the Enron megaspectacle scandals, the tired old concentrated and diffuse spectacles (Debord, 1967) ensued. "Oh Enron, that was the exception" said one antenarrative, "it does not mean that deregulation is not a good thing for energy marketeers."  

There must be different types of antenarratives.

  1. The boomerang antenarrative that changes direction and returns to where it took off.
  2. The loose-end antenarrative that seems to unravel the entire mask, or un-mask the masquerade. 
  3. The white noise antenarrative the moves in and out of being, but never quite goes away.
  4. The transformative

All kinds of work organizations, be they bureaucratic, postmodern, quest, or chaos/complexity -- all of them have antenarratives that take flight. A few land to become full-blown stories that pare part of the life script of the organization.  The bureaucracy tries to let plans fly that will change their work processes and idea systems (ideological Frames). The Chaos/Complexity firm has this antenarrative floating about that somehow people can manage at the edge of the abyss, and by staying at the edge (but not falling in) can realize all kinds of efficiencies and untapped revenues that the bureaucratic beast could never grasp. The post-modern antenarrative is that the modern organization can become what it is not yet being. All those quests that work organizations undertake, each has an antenarrative beginning, but how few every get very far away from home, and fewer still return with the magic elixir. Antenarratives aspire to be frame-breaking, frame changing, but many never take flight. By Frame I mean the Septet type of Frame. 

SEPTET means seven elements of Metatheatrics. The seven elements are: (1) Frames of the Work Organization, (2) Themes of Working Conditions, (3) Dialogs of the 3Cs, (4) Characters trained and untrained, (5) Rhythms those patterns of time, (6) Plots that are sometimes strategic, and (7) Spectacles of the Socio-Economics of Capitalism (See Intro to SEPTET, SEAM, and Metatheatre).

Every once in a while, someone interrupts the flow of experience and asks you to give an ACCOUNT of WHAT IS GOING ON? Your mind races, experiences come to mind, a plot thickens, and you begin to speak, and a story is told. You are living experience before narrating it, before someone requires you provide a story with the coherence of beginning, middle, or ending. And then it is out there, but you know it is only ONE WAY to tell the story. Others will have their ways. You never know the WHOLE story (there is none). The Story never finishes, it keeps unraveling, keeps coming undone, and keeps getting RESTORIED. Story is an "ante" state of affairs existing previously to narrative; it is in advance of narrative. It answers the question "what is going on here?" And the FIRST STORY is told. Ante is also a bet, something to do with gambling and speculation. You BET you can TELL A STORY THE FIRST TIME. "There are implicit rules in storytelling (who can tell it, to whom, and where)" (Boje, 1991a: 124). You can not just CONSTRUCT a story and tell it to just anyone. Antenarrative  is about the TAMARA of storytelling (Boje, 1995). In Tamara, Los Angeles' longest-running play, a dozen characters unfold their stories before a walking, sometimes running, audience. They are trying to find out "who done it?" They want to find out the story, that has yet to be figured out.  

Antenarrative is the fragmented, non-linear, incoherent, collective, unplotted, and pre-narrative speculation, a bet (Boje, 2001). Story is antenarrative (a practice attempt) and on occasion even anti-narrative (a refusal to be coherent). "The important point" says Weick (1995: 27) "is that retrospective sensemaking is an activity in which many possible meanings may need to be synthesized, because many different projects [stories] are under way at the time reflection takes place" (additions, mine). There are many stories you could tell, and you CREATE one to tell this time to this person. Storytelling organizations are antenarrative, existing to tell their collective stories, to live out their collective stories, to be in constant struggle over getting the stories of insiders and outsiders straight. It is a sensemaking that is coming into being, but not finished or concluded, in narrative retrospection. Antenarrative is collective memory, the organization memory in stories. It is before story becomes reified (becomes an object taken for granted) with repeated consensual validation. And because people in organizations typically are chasing multiple story lines, and are aware that over determining the story is risky, the collective memory is always being reworked and worked out, but never completed.

In sum, antenarrative is the fragmented, non-linear, incoherent, collective, unplotted, and pre-narrative speculation, a bet. To traditional narrative methods antenarrative is an improper storytelling, a wager that a proper narrative can be constituted.

Since story, narrative, and antenarrative are used throughout the book, some introduction is important. Story resists narrative; Story is antenarrative and on occasion even anti-narrative (a refusal to be coherent). The folk of organizations inhabit storytelling spaces outside plot, not tidy and rationalized narrative spaces. Narrative analysts replace folk stories with less messy academic narrative emplotments and create an account of organizations that is fictively rational, free of tangled contingency, and against story.

A great example of antenarrative is Peretti, Jonah (2001). My Nike Media Adventure. The Nation. Feature Story April 9th http://www.thenation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20010409&s=peretti 

 

Richman, Josh (2001) 'Is Nike Still Doing It?' Mother Jones Magazine, March 16. 

San Francisco cartoonist, animator, and playwright Dan McHale does a great cartoon about the whole  Jonah Peretti, Ordering "SWEATSHOP" sewn on his Nike shoes urban legend. Source http://shey.net/niked.html 

Peretti, an MIT graduate student took what I call an antenarrative (a bet that he could create a story that would catch on) and sent it by email to 12 friends, who sent it to their friends, until two web sites posted it, and then a string of news papers, and finally the Today Show flew Jonah in for an interview, and even the Wall Street Journal got into the urban legend distribution business. The story passed from antenarrative (pre-story) to story, to legend in just two months. Is there anyone on the planet who has not heard the story. Peretti's article in the Nation, raises some interest issues about the role of micromedia in the protest movement, and how it interacts with macromedia.  For more on antenarrative, see What is Antenarrative?.

The Kerngahan Antenarrative, starring Kathie Lee Gifford – a second example of antenarrative happened in April 1996, when labor activist Charles Kernaghan, studying sweatshop situations of U.S. corporations in Central American, since 1990, decided to craft a story that would embarrass, not only brand labels but also media stars, whose clothing was made in sweatshops. In May 1996 media personality Kathie Lee Gifford was the protagonist of the story, crying on national TV, claiming character defamation, as Kernaghan’s antenarrative circulated through the storyteller’s network.  The unseen heroes, of course, are the young women making her Wal-Mart clothing line in sweatshops in Honduras and a few blocks away from the TV studio televising the Regis and Kathie Lee talk show. As Kernaghan (1996) describes his first encounter with Kathie Lee:

We took the Honduran child worker to meet with Kathie Lee at Cardinal O'Connor's residency in New York city on June 5. It was the first time I met her. She came with attorneys and public relations people.

Kathie Lee asked Wendy, the child from Honduras, what it was like to work in the factory. Wendy, a 15-year old, was making Kathie Lee pants. She said - "We get there at 8:00 in the morning. We work until 9:00 at night. It is very dangerous when we come out. There is a poor neighborhood. We get in groups and we run home". She described what it was like to live with eleven people in one room and how she earned 31 cents an hour. She described being searched, about how she would have to raise her hand to use the bathroom how she was called a shithead and a whore for not working fast enough – the threats, the lack of water, working under armed guards, the place being as hot as an oven.

As the story began to circulate in the Tabloids, Entertainment Tonight, and a score of daily newspapers, a public outcry arose to do something about the women earning slave wages in sweatshops, making movie and sports personalities and American transnational corporations rich. On August 2, 1996, President Clinton invites a group of industry, labor, and human rights leaders to the White House to form The Apparel Industry Partnership. After a split between the union and corporate AIP partners, the union and NGOs withdraw, and the AIP becomes reborn as the Fair Labor Association (FLA) on April 14, 1997. See Kernaghan, Charles (1996) CCR interview (transcript) with Kernaghan http://www.citinv.it/associazioni/CNMS/archivio/strategie/kernaghan2.html

Most antenarratives do not catch on. They are like those bets at the Casino. But a few do, and become the stuff of not only urban legend by organizational and social transformation.

PART III - The [Original] Antenarrative web page that was deleted from Wikipedia in February 2011

Introduction The following page was recovered from ask.com after Dave Snowden, a fellow with his own storytelling consulting practices led his colleagues to delete the page from Wikipedia (see history). After a month of exchanges with Snowden and colleagues, pages involving 'antenarrative,' 'storytelling organization' and even the 'David Boje' Wikipedia page were purged of all references to 'antenarrative.' This is indeed unfortunate since, the theory, methodology, and practice is well established in the social science journals and scholarly books.

Antenarrative is a story concept invented by David Boje in 2001,Narrative Methods for Organization and Communication Research. London, Sage. In ‘antenarrative’ (Boje, 2001), storytelling is no more than a bet, a scrawny pre-story. Antenarrative is defined as “non-linear, incoherent, collective, unplotted, and pre-narrative speculation, a bet, a proper retrospective narrative with Beginning, Middle, and End (BME) can be constituted” (Boje, 2001: 1). Antenarratives are “in the middle” and “in-between” (Boje, 2001: 293) refusing to attach linear BME coherence. Whereas, most BME narratives and narrative fragments are retrospective (backward-looking) antenarratives are more often prospective (forward-looking). BME Narratives must achieve coherence, developmental plots required by narrative theorists (Gabriel, 2000:20, 22; Czarniawska, 1997: 79, 98; 1998: vii, 2).


Antenarratology - is defined as the study of antenarratives in interplay with stories and narratives. Whereas retrospective narratives typically have beginnings, middles, and ends (BMEs) stories are more part of the living fabric of the social, more co-created, unfolding in the present moment of Being, and prospective into the future of the social. Critical antenarratology is a method to trace and deconstruct an ongoing interweaving antenarrating this is always composing and self-deconstructing.


Antenarratives have five dimensions (Boje, 2001: 3-5). 1. Antenarrative is about the Tamara of storytelling. Tamara is a play where ten characters unfold their stories before a walking, sometimes running, audience that fragments into small groups to chase characters and storylines from room to room. 2. Antenarrative is a collective (prospective) memory before it becomes reified into the organization story, or consensual (official) narrative. 3. Antenarrative directs our analytic attention to the flow of storytelling, as lived experience before the narrative requirements of beginnings, middles or endings. 4. Antenarrative gives attention to the speculative, the ambiguity of sensemaking and guessing as to what is happening in the flow of experience. 5. Antenarrating is both before story and a bet of prospective-transformation through supplements, dropping and picking up meaning in each successive context, and remaining unfinalized.


The value of antenarratives is that they occur in social networks. Their archeologies are only beginning to be charted. In prior work antenarratives have been thought to pick up and jettison context, morphing over time, as them move through social networks.


Antenarrative in Management Research
The first ever use of the term 'antenarrative' is Boje (2001a) Narrative Methods for Organization and Communication Research (London: Sage). Antenarrative has a double meaning: ante as before, and ante as a bet. Antenarrative is before the stability of narrative, and it is a bet that a prospective (future oriented) transformation will occur. Whereas narrative is mainly retrospective. Antenarrative is about shaping possibilities for the future. In 2001 Boje delivered two papers in Europe on antenarrative (Boje, 2001b,c). In 2002, he also developed the theory in a keynote address to the Discourse Conference in a paper delivered on Enron antenarratives, that became the basis for a coauthored article in Organization Studies Journal (Boje, Rosile, Durant, & Luhman, 2004).


There has been increasing interest in antenarrative theory and research since Boje's theory building and research on antenarrative (Boje, 2001a,b,c, 2002) and subsequent collaborative work 2005, 2007a, b, c, 2008, forthcoming) and work with colleagues (Boje & Rosile, 2002, 2003; Boje, Rosile, Durant, & Luhman, 2004; Boje, Rosile & Gardner, 2007), such as important work done with the initial our formulations (Barge 2004; Collins & Rainwater, 2005; Vickers, 2005; Yolles, 2007).


Walter Benjamin's (1936) Illuminations examines the rise of the novel and the decline of storytelling. Benjamin found industrialization and standardization as well as a decline in the value of experience as the likely culprits in this unfortunate trend. The differences between stories and novels are highlighted along with some salient examples. In Benjamin's estimation, Paul Valery, epitomizes the qualities of a storyteller. Benjamin expands upon Valery's observations about the decline of the idea of eternity: "It has been observable for a number of centuries how in the general consciousness the thought of death has declined in omnipresence and vividness." Benjamin also comments on the decline of the ability for people to listen and a loss of the value of craftsmanship, essential elements of a culture of storytelling.


This three-ness of time is the essence of storytelling (narrative, living story, & antenarrative). Currie (1998) makes the point that narrative is a bit too eager to put storytelling into the past, and claims this is happening at an accelerated rate. If this is true, then narrative transforms present of living story networks to the past without much noticing, and in its future perfect sense, narrative looks back from the future in a linear path (BME).
See also

References

PART IV Antenarrative Theory, Methodology, and Practice Development

There are four theorized types of antenarrative: linear, cyclic, spiral, and assemblage (rhizomes). These antenarrative-types are in intra-play with 'living story' and 'narrative.' Narrative is defined as a retrospective-sensemaking of a more distant past. Living story is defined as a more immediate-present-sensemaking in the Here and Now, of a place in existence, and in relationality with others' living stories. Antenarrative (Boje, 2001a, 2008a, 2011a) is defined as a double-meaning: as a 'bet' (an ante) on a probable future that generates the impetus for action-taking to bring that anticipated future into Being-Becoming, that is 'before' (ante to) the coherence of stabilized narrative order. In Boje (2011a: 3) I make these introductory distinctions, however, I mean the three manners of storytelling to be intra-activity with one another and inseparable from materiality.

p. 3 of Boje 2011a Future of Storytelling book

The linear-antenarrative conforms to a linear-logic by bringing a series of retrospective-narrative-representations and impressions that come to bear on the prospective-linear-antenarrative-sensemaking of an anticipated future, and by engaging in action-taking that brings that possible future into being. In short, the past and future are in connection by way of retrospection-prospection sensemaking.

The cyclic-antenarrative conforms to a stage-by-stage logic of retrospective-narrative-representations and impressions that come to bear on the prospective-cyclic-antenarrative-sensemaking of an anticipate future of stage-by-stage recurrence. Again, the past and future are in connection by way of retrospective-prospection sensemaking.

The spiral-antenarrative conforms to a dialectic of deviation-amplificiation with deviation-counteraction, in what Bakhtin (1981) calls heteroglossia forces of language and discourse, of which antenarrative is very much a participant. This is a connection between more immediate-emergence-sensemaking and a prospective-sensemaking that anticipated a possible future by enacting particular sorts of actions, iteratively.

The assemblage-antenarrative is more what Deleuze and Guattari (1987) term a rhizomatic process. Here again, the sensemaking is immediate-present-sensemaking in relationship to prospective-anticipation-sensemaking.

Mood Duration and Antenarratives Kitaro (1987: 65) theorizes that "independent concrete experience arises from the interplay of quantity and quality." He does not want to separate mind and matter into a duality, as is done in Cartesian approaches.

"To think that only psychological phenomena are immediate is the result of a deduction which proceeds from the distinction of the worlds of mind and matter as independent realities and sees sensation as more basic than thought" (Kitaro, 1987: 60). He wants to preserve intuition in the act of mood-impressions as a (Bergsonian) duration of a mood that is a qualitative differentiation, and a priori (in Kantian sense) to taking action. It is this mood-duration that is related to a action-based approach to antenarrative action-taking that shapes one probable future out of a field of possible futures. The intensive quality of the mood-impression, of for example, a linear-antenarrative is a prelude to a creative system of action.

In the continuous motion of overcoming discontinuity, a spiral-antenarrative, at any given instant, is a moving material-storytelling (an intra-activity, in Barad's 2007 theory of agential realism of quantum physics). The spiral occupies a certain timespacemattering position, and is in some interval in-between several other positions that are even nearer together. The spiral-antenarrative mood-impression-duration prompts by anticipation the creative action that contributes to self-organizing, self-development, and self-generativity of the movement itself in upsurge, downsurge, deviation-amplificiation, or deviation-counteraction. There are mood-impressions of these qualities of movement and direction between positions that are traceable and discernible by participants. The mood-sensations contribute to acts of creating continuity and discontinuity, affirmation and negation, and their vice-versa, according to my reading of Kitaro.

Among the various antenarrative-types there is an intra-activity of mood-intensive-duration experience and the collective negation of action of a storytelling organization. The antenarrative-types in their intra-play are operative in the material world and its intra-activity with the storytelling world. This in a Kitaro (1970) sense is dialectal affirmation-qua-negation and negation-qua-affirmation. Storytelling is not therefore independent of the material world of tonality, corporeality, and this includes forensically thing-storytelling. The ontological constituting activity of antenarrative-compellent action-taking shapes the mood-impression and also shapes the material world, be it man-made or Natural.

 

PART V COMPLETE ANTENARRATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PUBLISHED WORK

Barge, J.K. (2004) `Antenarrative and Managerial Practice' , Communication Studies 55(1): 106-27.

Boje, D.M. (2001a). Narrative Methods for Organizational and Communication Research, London:  Sage.

Boje, D. M. (2004a). Grotesque Method. Published in Proceedings (edited by Henri Savall, Marc Bonnet & Michel Peron) of First International Cosponsored Conference, Research methods Division, Academy of Management: Crossing Frontiers in Quantitative and Qualitative Research methods. Vol. II pp. 1085-1114. Lyon France, Presentation March 19 2004; paper written February 1, 2004; revised Mar 11. Copy on line at http://peaceaware.com/McD/

Boje, D. M. (2004b). Regenerating Ronald McDonald with the Method of Grotesque Realism. Published, pp. 752-756 Business Research Yearbook, Vol. XI 2004 edited by Carolyn Gardner, Jerry Biberman & Abbass Alkhafaji. Paper about the play, and the play presented in San Antonio Texas on Mar 26 2004 Copy on line at http://peaceaware.com/McD/

Boje, D. M. (2004c). Architectonics of McDonald’s Cohabitation with Wal-Mart: Critique of critical and mainstream theory and research perspectives. March 2 2004; Revised April 3 2004. Published in conference proceedings of Critical Perspectives on International Business Programme for Workshop, Durham Business School, UK; Paper presented Mon Apr 5 2004 in teleconference format Copy on line at http://peaceaware.com/McD/

Boje. D. M. (2005). Empire Reading of Manet's Execution of Maximilian: Critical Visual Aesthetics and Antenarrative Spectrality. Tamara Journal. Vol 4 (4): 118-134. http://peaceaware.com/388/articles/20052.pdf

Boje, D. M. (2007a). Chapter 13 Living Story: From Wilda to Disney, pp.330-354. Handbook of Narrative Inquiry: Mapping a New Methodology. Edited by Jean Clandinin, London: Sage.

Boje, D. M. (2007b). "The Antenarrative Cultural Turn in Narrative Studies" in Mark Zachry & Charlotte Thralls (Eds.) Communicative Practices in Workplaces and the Professions: Cultural Perspectives on the Regulation of Discourse and Organizations.

Boje, D. M. 2007c. Globalization Antenarratives. Pp. 505-549, Chapter 17 in Albert Mills, Jeannie C. Helms-Mills & Carolyn Forshaw (Eds). Organizational Behavior in a Global Context. Toronto: Garamond Press. http://peaceaware.com/vita/paper_pdfs/Boje%20(2008)%20Globalization%20Antenarratives.pdf

Boje, D. M. (2008a). Storytelling Organizations, London: Sage.

Boje (forthcoming). Antenarrative in management research. The Sage Dictionary of Qualitative Management Research: London (2,500 words). Accepted 2006. Draft available at http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/690/papers/Antenarrative%20in%20Management%0research%20May%2014%2005.pdf
Boje, D. M. & Baskin, K. (2010). Dancing to the Music of Story. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Press. See Chapter 1 on complexity.

Boje, D. M. (2011). The Future of Storytelling in Organizations: An Antenarrative Handbook. London: Routledge (release date February 23, 2011).

Boje, D. M. & Rosile, G. A. (2002). Enron Whodunit? Ephemera. Vol 2(4), pp. 315-327. http://www.ephemeraweb.org/journal/2-4/2-4bojeandrosile.pdf

Boje, D. M. & Rosile, G.A. (2003). Life Imitates Art: Enron’s Epic and Tragic Narration. Management Communication Quarterly. Vol. 17 (1): 85-125. http://cbae.nmsu.edu/%7Edboje/theatrics/7/EpicTragicTheatre.pdf

Boje, D. M., Rosile, G.A., Durant, R.A. & Luhman, J.T. (2004) "Enron Spectacles: A Critical Dramaturgical Analysis". Special Issue on Theatre and Organizations edited by Georg Schreyögg and Heather Höpfl, Organization Studies, 25(5):751-774. Available on line at http://cbae.nmsu.edu/mgt/jpub/boje/enron.pdf

Boje, D. M.; Rosile, G. A.; & Gardner, C. L. (2007). "Antenarratives, Narratives and Anaemic Stories" Chapter 4, pp. 30-45, Storytelling in Management, Editors: Ms. Nasreen Taher and Ms. Swapna Gopalan, Publisher: The Icfai University Press, India, First Edition: 2007 (Note: was based upon Paper presented in Showcase Symposium, Academy of Management,. Mon Aug 9 2004 in New Orleans). See conference version http://peaceaware.com/McD/papers/2004%20boje%20rosile%20Gardner%20Academy%20presentation%20Antenarratives%20Narratives%20and%20Anaemic%20ones.pdf

Collins, D. & Rainwater, K. (2005). "Managing change at Sears: a sideways look at a tale of corporate transformation". Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 18, No. 1: 16-30.

Dalcher, D. & Drevin, L. (2003). "Learning from information systems failures by using narrative and antenarrative methods". Proceedings of SAICSIT, pages 137-142.

Durant, R.; Gardner, K.; & Taylor, K. (2006). Indexical antenarratives as invitational rhetoric. Tamara Journal of Critical Orgnaization Inquiry, vol 5 (3/4): 17-182.

Eriksen, M. & Colleagues, (2006).  “Antenarratives about Leadership and Gender in the U.S. Coast Guard.”  Tamara Journal for Critical Organization Inquiry, 5(4), 162-173.

Eriksen, M., Van Echo, K., Harmel, A., Kane, J., Curran, K., Gustafson, G., & Schults, R.  (2005).  “Conceptualizing and Engaging in Organizational Change as an Embodied Experience within a Practical Reflexivity Community of Practice: Gender Performance at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy.”  Tamara Journal for Critical Organization Inquiry, 4 (1), 75-80.

Gardner, C. (2002). "An exploratory study of bureaucratic, heroic, chaos, postmodern and hybrid story typologies of the expatriate journey". Dissertation in Management Department of College of Business Administration and Economics.

Grow, Jean M. (2009), “The Gender of Branding: Antenarrative Resistance in Early Nike Women’s Advertising,” Women’s Studies in Communication, 31/3, 310-343. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-189653396.html

Smith, William L.; Boje, David M.; & Melendrez, Kevin D, (2010) "The financial crisis and mark-to-market accounting: An analysis of cascading media rhetoric and storytelling", Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, Vol. 7 Iss: 3, pp.281 – 303.

Vaara, E., & Tienari, J. (2011). On the narrative construction of multinational corporations: An antenarrative analysis of legitimation and resistance in a cross-border merger. Organization Science, Vol. 22 (2): 370-390. http://eprints.herce.fi/221/3/Tienari,_Vaara.pdf

Vickers, M. H. (2005). Illness, work and organisation: Postmodern perspectives, antenarratives and chaos narratives for the reinstatement of voice. Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organisation Science, 3(2), pp. 1-15.

Warren, L. and Smith, R. (2009) The social construction of an entrepreneurial wide boy: narrative, ante-narrative and a story of resistance. In,20th SC' MOI (Standing Conference - Management & Organization Inquiry), Orlando, USA, 2009.

Yolles, M. (2007). The dynamics of narrative and antenarrative and their relation to story. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20, No. 1: 74 – 94.

Here is the recent work on antenarrative in the February 28 2011, Handbook (London: Routledge), The Future of Storytelling and Organizations: An Antenarrative Handbook, 432 pages.  http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415873918/

Contents
Introduction to Agential Antenarratives That Shape the Futureof Organizations 1
DAVID M. BOJE

PART I
Individual, Gender, and Group Antenarratives Introduction to Part I 23

1 Antenarrational Presuppostitions: A Philosophical Refl ection on Responsible Use of Power and (Ante)narrative 29 FRITS SCHIPPER AND BARBARA FRYZEL

2 Antenarratives of Negotiated Diversity Management 47 JAWAD SYED AND DAVID M. BOJE

3 The Tesseract Antenarrative Model: Mapping Storytelling to Multi-dimensional Factor Lattices in Mathematics 67 DIANE WALKER

4 The Antenarrative of Ethics and the Ethics of Antenarratives 87 GRACE ANN ROSILE

5 The Creative Spirit of the Leader’s Soul: Using Antenarratives to Explain Metanoia Experiences 101 KEVIN GRANT

6 Understanding Legal Antenarratives 117 MAJELLA O’LEARY AND KIM ECONOMIDES

PART II
Organization and Writing Antenarratives
Introduction to Part II 13`

7 Living Story and Antenarrative in Organizational Accidents 137 JO A. TYLER

8 Antenarrative and Narrative: The Experiences of Actors Involved in the Development and Use of Information Systems 148 LYNETTE DREVIN AND DARREN DALCHER

9 Strategy as Antenarrative Complexity 163 YUE CAI-HILLON, DAVID M. BOJE, AND CLARINDA DIR

10 Antenarratives, Strategic Alliances, and Sensemaking: Engagement and Divorce Without Marriage between Two Brazilian Air Carriers Firms 176 SERGIO LUIS SELOTI JR. AND MÁRIO AQUINO ALVES

11 Visual/Picture as Antenarratives: Sketching the Research Process 188 TEPPO SINTONEN AND TOMMI AUVINEN

12 Narratives: A Love Story 201 ANNA LINDA MUSACCHIO ADORISIO

PART III
Antenarratives and Organization Change Introduction to Part III 215

13 Survival Toolkit for Sociotechnical Project Complexity 221 STEVE KING

14 Narratives, Paradigms, and Change 241 GERHARD FINK AND MAURICE YOLLES

15 Antenarratives of Change in Mexican Innovation Networks 253 ENRIQUE CAMPOS-LÓPEZ, ALENA URDIALES-KALINCHUK, AND HILDA G. HERNÄNDEZ

16 Connecting Antenarrative and Narrative to Solving Organizational Problems 268
NICHOLAS SNOWDEN

17 Antenarrative Writing—Tracing and Representing Living Stories 284 KENNETH MØLBJERG JØRGENSEN

18 Tales of Merger Survivors 298 DANIEL DAUBER AND GERHARD FINK

PART IV
National and Globalizing Antenarratives Introduction to Part IV 315

19 Storytelling Narrative Marginality—On Becoming a Global
Human 317 JEFF LEINAWEAVER

20 The Rhetoric of Toxic Assets: An Antenarrative Analysis 334 WILLIAM L. SMITH AND DAVID M. BOJE

21 Well-Timed Stories: Rhetorical Kairos and Antenarrative Theory 347 RICHARD HERDER

22 The Evolutive and Interactive Actor Polygon in the Theater of Organizations 366 HENRI SAVALL, VÉRONIQUE ZARDET, AND MICHEL PÉRON

Postscript—An Antenarrative Theory of Socioeconomic in Intervention Research 383 DAVID M. BOJE

PART VI.Working papers on antenarrative

Berendsen, W.T.M, 2010. A phronesis antenarrative about the understanding of money and usage
of money in more phronetic ways, to be downloaded here
http://wilvon.com/download_center/index.php?TheMoneyGame1.pdf

Berendsen, W.T.M. (2010). Towards a reenchanted society through storytelling and phronesis
antenarrating, to be downloaded here
http://wilvon.com/download_center/index.php?Rechantingsociety1.pdf

Boje, D. M. (2001b). Flight of Antenarrative in Phenomenal Complexity Theory, Tamara, Storytelling Organization Theory. September 20th, paper to honor Professor Hugo Letiche and his work on Phenomenal Complexity Theory, for the September 24th and 25th Conference on Complexity and Consciousness at Huize Molenaar (Korte Nieuwstraat 6) in the old center of Utrecht, Netherlands. http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/papers/ante/flight_of_antenarrative.htm

Boje, D. M. (2001c). “Antenarrating, Tamara, and Nike Storytelling.” Paper prepared for presentation at “Storytelling Conference” at the School of Management; Imperial College, 53 Prince’s Gate, Exhibition Road, London, July 9th, 2001. On line at http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/papers/ethnostorytelling.htm

Boje, D. M. (2002). "Critical Dramaturgical Analysis of Enron Antenarratives and Metatheatre". Plenary presentation to 5th International Conference on Organizational Discourse: From Micro-Utterances to Macro-Inferences, Wednesday 24th - Friday 26th July (London).

Boje, D. M. (2001b). Flight of Antenarrative in Phenomenal Complexity Theory, Tamara, Storytelling Organization Theory. September 20th, paper to honor Professor Hugo Letiche and his work on Phenomenal Complexity Theory, for the September 24th and 25th Conference on Complexity and Consciousness at Huize Molenaar (Korte Nieuwstraat 6) in the old center of Utrecht, Netherlands. http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/papers/ante/flight_of_antenarrative.htm

Boje, D. M. (2010). Towards a postcolonial storytelling theory that interrogates tribal peoples’ Material-Agential-Storytelling ignored in management and organization studies. Under review, and working paper available from dbojeATnmsu.edu

Boje, D. M. (2100). Quantum Physics of Storytelling. On Line Book - Click here 200 plus pages.

Camille-Strand, A. M. (2010). Material storytelling as identity re-work. Paper presented to the April 2010 meeting of Standing Conference for Management and Organizational Inquiry (sc’MOI).

Tobey, D. H. (2007). Narrative's Arrow: Story sequences and organizational trajectories in founding stories. Paper presented at the Standing Conference on Management and Organizational Inquiry, Las Vegas, NV.

Tobey, D. H. (2008). Storying crisis: What neuroscience can teach us about group decision making. Paper presented at the Southwest Academy of Management, Houston, TX.


PART VII - Antenarrative Websites

 

PART VIII OTHER REFERENCES IN THIS ESSAY

Bakhtin, M. 1973). Problems of Doestoevsky’s Poetics (trans R. W. Rostel). An Arbor, MI: Ardis.

Bakhtin, M. M. 1990. Art and Answerability. Editied by Michael Holquist & Vadim Liapunov. Translation and Notes by Vadim Liapunov; supplement translated by Kenneth Brostrom. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. From Bakhtin’s first published article and his early 1920s notebooks.

Bakhtin, M. (1993) Toward a philosophy of the act (translation and notes by Vadim Liapunov; Michael Holquist and Vadim Liapunov, eds). Austin, Tx, University of Texas Press.

Barad, K. (2003). Posthumanist performativity: Toward an understanding of how matter comes to matter.” Journal of Women in Culture and Society. Vol. 28 (3): 801-831). On line at http://www.kiraoreilly.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/signsbarad.pdf


Barad, K. (2007). Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning. Durham/London: Duke University Press.

Boje, D. M.; Driver, M.; & Cai, Y. 2004. McDonald's, McDonaldland, and McDonaldization: Humor and the dialogical approach to strategy. Paper presented Sat July 10 2004 at Standing Conference for Organizational Symbolism, Halifax Nova Scotia. Copy on line at http://peaceaware.com/McD/

Boje, D.M., Luhman, J. & Baack, D. (1999). " Hegemonic Tales of the Field: A Telling Research Encounter between Storytelling Organizations." Journal of Management Inquiry. 8(4): 340-360.

Currie, M. (1998). Postmodern narrative theory. NY St. Martin’s Press Czarniawska, B. (2004). Narratives in social science research: London: Sage

Benjamin, Walter. 1936/1955/1968. The Storyteller: Refllections on the works of Nikolai Leskov, Pp. 883-110. In Illuminations, Edited with introduction by Hannah Arendt. Translated by Harry Zohn. NY: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. 1955 in German, 1968 in English. 1936 was original publication of “The Storyteller”: Orient und Oksident, 1936 .

Czarniawska, B. (1997). Narrating the Organization: Dramas of Institutional Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Czarniawska, B. (1998). "A Narrative Approach to Organization Studies". Qualitative Research methods Series Vol. 43. Thousand Oaks, Ca; Sage Publications, Inc.

Czarniawska, B. (2004). Narratives in social science research: London: Sage

Currie, M. (1998). Postmodern narrative theory. NY St. Martin’s Press Czarniawska, B. (2004). Narratives in social science research: London: Sage

Deleuze, G. & Guattari, F. (1987). A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Translation by B. Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Debord Guy (1967). Society of the Spectacle. La Société du Spectacle was first published in 1967 by Editions, Buchet-Chastel (Paris); it was reprinted in 1971 by Champ Libre (Paris). The full text is available in English at http://www.nothingness.org/SI/debord/index.html It is customary to refer to paragraph numbers in citing this work.

Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F. (1987). A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia, (translation B. Massumi). Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press.

Derrida, J. (1979) ‘Living On: Borderlines’, in H. Bloom (ed.) Deconstruction and Criticism, pp.75-176. London: Continuum Publications.

Fixico, D. L. (2003). The American Indian mind in a linear world. NY/London: Routledge.

Gabriel, Y.A. 2000. Storytelling in Organizations: Facts, fictions, and fantasies. London: Oxford University Press.

Gherardi, S. & Poggio, B. (2007). Gendertelling in organizations; Narratives from amle-dominated environonments. Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press.

Kierkegaard, Søren (1997, p. 306). http://www.math.uiowa.edu/~jorgen/kierkegaardquotesource.html

Kitaro, Nishida. (1970). Fundamental Problems of Philosophy: The World of Action and the Dialectical World. Translated by David A. Dilworth. Tokyo: Sophia University.

Kitaro, Nishida (1987). Intuition and Reflection in Solf-consciousness. Translated by Valdo H. Vigielmo, with Takeuchi Toshinori and Joseph S. O’Leary. NY: State University of New York Press.

Latour, Bruno. (1999). Pandora's hope: essays on the reality of science studies. Cambridge Mass:  Harvard University Press.


Latour, Burno. (2005). Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford/NY: Oxford University Press.

Sandoval, C. (2000). Methodology of the oppressed: Theory out of bounds. Minneapolis/London: University of Minnesota Press.

Weick, K. E. 1995. Sensemaking in Organizations. CA: Sage.

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If you have an ANTENARRATIVE reference, then please let me know dboje AT nmsu.edu