September 5, 1999
WELCOME TO MODULE 5: INTERTEXTUALITY
Title of this web page -->Narrative Methods for Organizational and Communication Research
by David M. Boje, Ph.D.
Purpose: a web resource library of qualitative materials, exercises, and study guides to supplement the (2001) book titled Narrative Methods for Organizational and Communication Research. London: Sage Publications. See Amazon to order book and/or read book review.
Each module on this web site will tackle a different analysis in Narrative Analysis for Management and Communication Research (hereafter NA). Then we situate that analysis in its philosophy of science context - (press here) for summary table.
Readings Index & Abbreviations Explained (All Modules)
Background Reading for this Module (bold = required).
- NA Narrative Analysis for Management and Communication Research (book) by Boje (2001) the modules that follow are keyed to the chapters of this book.
- HQR: Handbook of Qualitative Research by Denzin & Lincoln (can buy the soft cover books; excellent book for background on methods and qualitative philosophies of science).
- ES: Ethnostatistics by Gephart (this book transcends all false dichotomies of qualitative and quantitative).
- WC: Writing Culture by Clifford & Marcus (optional good for intermediate).
- PO: Participant Observation by Spradley (optional good for beginners).
- GC: Greening Culture by Herndl & Brown (optional great for very advanced QM writing).
- FG: Focus Group text by Krueger (required for Marketing, optional for others).
- NA book chapter 5 - intertextuality
MODULE 5 INTERTEXTUALITY (Continued) - there is a floating menu on your left that takes you between modules or to the top of this one.LEARNING MODULE ON INTERTEXTUALITY PART i
Intertextuality Analysis - Part I - Horizontal Axis
The usual qualitative (content/theme) analysis naively compares one bounded, object text to another to assess similarities and differences of attributes. But, there is a whole other class of narrative analyses where a text is unbounded, a tapestry and a weave of strands that has both a horizontal and vertical analyses of prior and anticipated dynamic relations to other texts you can explore. The philosophy of science home for the horizontal axis (historicity) is in Semiotics. You task is to learn both the analysis and the philosophy of science. How? Do the assignment, read the articles, and explore the web links on Semiotics.
INTERTEXTUALITY "is a web of complex inter-relationships ensnaring each story's historicity and situational context between other stories" (Boje, 2001: 91). Few antenarratives become full-fledged narratives or long-lived stories with coherent structures and fashionable impact.
ANTENARRATIVE - "Intertextuality is antenarrative since instead of a homogeneous narrative, each text is theorized as a network of fragments that refer to still outer narrative texts" (Boje, 2001: 74). The antenarrative dynamics of intertextuality include how texts are suspended in webs of intertextual production, distribution and consumption. Horizontally, the antenarrative is a flight of a gentle butterfly that moves temporally from one text to another. Sometimes this flight of emergence self-organizes into the perfect storm. We see the path of connectivity in retrospective historicity. See ENRON ANTENARRATIVES
AssignmentMore Background - The horizontal axis of Intertextuality Analysis is the link between author and reader, who gets quoted or summarized and author interpretations in network of relationships between textual utterances (images too) and other texts (references, citations, quotes, summaries). There is an ongoing dynamic textual production process, of which each utterance and the text itself is a moment. I call this historicity, you may prefer to call it citation. It is how the text is designed and constructed and produced as an intertext or tapestry. There is also a second axis you can analyze, the vertical which is the context of each utterance in a text that draws it into its intertextual web (e.g. by irony, satire, juxtaposition). This we will cover in Part II. Bakhtin started this analysis, then Kristeva gave it flesh, and it is also part of Barthes' focus. You find such analysis in advertising, literary theory, and in organizational analysis (e.g. Fairclough). The philosophical roots include semiotics (sign systems), poststructuralism (its all text), and postmodernism (death of the authoritarian author). Point: each analysis has its own intertextuality, its own historicity and contextualization in philosophies of (social) science. This is how Kristeva (1980) puts it together:
A. Based on readings, please analyze the (Horizontal Axis) intertextual aspects of several of the press releases listed below. Begin by asking analytic questions from Figure One in NA book (if links are broken do google search and find better ones).
Please see - Example of Intertextual Analysis of Spectacle: Enron
- Associated Press release, as reported by Yahoo News Thursday September 24 1:24 AM EDT with the title "Nike Shareholders Nix Pay Proposal" (http://www2.bw.edu/~bmelcher/bus451/NikeImage.html)
- "Nike shareholders reject wage proposal" in a version printed in the Morning Sun of Pittsburgh, Kansas, Web posted Sunday, September 27, 1998 (http://www.morningsun.net/stories/092798/fas_0927980037.html).
- NIKE HOLDS ANNUAL MEETING IN MEMPHIS - Company Salutes Athletes for Community Involvement - Beaverton, Ore. (Sept. 23, 1998)- http://www.nikebiz.com/media/n_share2.shtml
- CLR - Campaign for Labor Rights, Press Release 1998 http://www.summersault.com/~agj/clr/alerts/nikeupdateaugust.html#9
- "Her job: A new Nike image Maria Eitel joins an elite group of U.S. executives" by Gina Binole, staff writer for the Business Journal - Portland, Week of January 26, 1998. http://www.amcity.com/portland/stories/1998/01/26/story2.html
- NIKE NAMES VP FOR CORPORATE AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY BEAVERTON, OR, January 1998 - http://www.nikebiz.com/media/n_eitel.shtml
- WSJ, p. B14, January 15, 1998 as reported in News Clips, http://www.iamaw.org/news/1998/jan15.htm
- January 24 1999 The Oregonian newspaper By Jeff Manning http://www.summersault.com/~agj/clr/alerts/oreghaletter.html
- 1998 - Nike Hires a New Perfumer by Jim Hightower Generation Next Web Edition, http://www.gennext.com/out/398-nike.htm
- The Hightower comments on Eitel were picked up in other texts, e.g. 1998 Overswooshed: Nike on the ropes By Don Hazen http://www.eden.com/~reporter/98.5.nike.html
- Manning, Jeff. Oregonian 'I Can' might just do it for Nike " December 30, 1997 The Oregonian http://www.oregonlive.com/todaysnews/1297/st12301.html
- Binole, Gina 1998 "Nike proves you `can' make NBC jump Network pulls ads after shoe giant complains." Business Journal Staff Writer Portland Journal, March 2, 1998. http://www.amcity.com/portland/stories/1998/03/02/story1.html
Wednesday, Dec. 31, 1997 Nike hopes motto will give buyers new can-do attitude `I Can' replaces dated `Just Do It' By BOB BAUM Associated Press. Appeared in Corpus Christi Caller Times. http://caller.com/busarch/bus3301.htmlThe word's status is thus defined horizontally (the word in the text belongs to both writing subject and addressee) as well as vertically (the word in the text is oriented towards an anterior or synchronic literary corpus) . . . each word (text) is an intersection of words (texts) where at least one other word (text) can be read . . . any text is constructed as a mosaic of quotations; any text is the absorption and transformation of another.
- *NA book: Intertextuality Chapter
- *Handout - Kristeva, Julia. "Word, Dialogue, and Novel." Desire and Language. Ed. Leon S. Roudiez. Trans. Thomas Gora et al. New York: Columbia UP, 1980. 64-91. "[A]ny text," she argues, "is constructed of a mosaic of quotations; any text is the absorption and transformation of another"
Intertextuality Studies in Organization and Communication Studies:
- *O'Connor, Ellen (2002) Storied business Typology, intertextuality, and traffic in entrepreneurial narrative; The Journal of Business Communication, Urbana; Jan 2002; Vol. 39 (1) 36- 54. O'Connor looks at intertextuality as interconnected plot and storylines in situations of intertextual conflict:
- "Narrative sensemaking refers to an entrepreneur's ability to locate and adjust a taken position relative to distinct but interconnected plot-lines in which the communicator and relevant organization figure as primary, secondary, and minor characters. Consistent with a characteristic of discourse known as intertextuality (Kristeva, 1986), meaning the explicit and implicit ways in which terms refer to one another, I define this as a discursive ability. Focusing on the intertextual properties of the narrative form, I define narrative competence to mean an ability to plot oneself not only as a primary, but also as a secondary or minor character. The former idea is popularly held and understood. That is, as primary characters, entrepreneurs "plot" themselves and their companies. Literally, they write marketing, strategic, and financial plots for their companies; and in everyday conversation, they narrate their dreams and their plans for extraordinary personal and professional success. More elusive, however, is the processual aspect of this narrative activity-a complex, subtle sensemaking by which entrepreneurs recognize that they are constantly plotted into storylines authored by others."
- For an example see the ENRON files - See Enron Plots.
Web Documents (This is a good and quick way to get an overview of the topic).
- See Enron Plots.
Wenz, Karin (2002). Intertextuality as Spatialization. Available online on Cyberspace & Critical Theory, at http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/ht/wenz/interext.html, no date available but last accessed on March 5, 2002. Bakhtin links (press here). Roland Barthes links (press here). "de Saussure rejects the positivist conception of language as one of simple correspondence to the physical world" (press here)... De Saussure's approach was taken up, but also criticized and reformulated by the school of thinkers around MM Bakhtin." I would add also Kristeva, Barthes, and Peirce then many more. *Semiotics for Beginners by Daniel Chandler "Intertextuality" Good applied intro to Semiotics and its relation to deconstruction (press here). Semiotics and Qualitative Research in Education: The Third Crossroad by Gary Shank (press here) - good article with definitions and application. Practical approach to Peirce-Semiotics e.g. the Emerys (press here).
- Peirce links (press here).
- Abduction? Deduction? Induction? Is there a Logic of Exploratory Data Analysis? Yu, Chong Ho, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, April, 1994. Excellent site 1994 paper.
- Yu, C. H. (2001 April). Misconceived relationships between logical positivism and quantitative methods. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Researcher Association, Seattle, WA. - Good site for transcending the false duality of quantitative and qualitative work.
Now that you know something of Semiotics, it is time to turn to the main topic, Intertextuality.
- *Overview of Texts and Semiotics (press here).
- More Advanced - POSTMODERN SEMIOTICS Mark Gottdeiner (press here).
- More Advanced - "SEMIOTICS AND DECONSTRUCTION" by JONATHAN CULLER (press here).
- Intro to Barthes and Semiotics (press here). Another good one (press here).
- *List and definition of Barthes' semiotics terms (press here).
- Another good list (press here).
- *Good overview of Barthes and TEXT (press here).
- Another Example - Star-Spangled Business: Labor, Patriotism, and Michael Jordan in a Nike Advertisement By Jes Cortes (press here).
- About Barthes the man (press here). And here (press here) -Mythologies. And here 2 paragraphs (press here).
- Roland Barthes Theories (press here).
- Roland Barthes: Mythologies (1957) -Set of 3 lectures on Barthes (press here).
- 4th see - The New Citroen by Roland Barthes 1957 - "I think that cars today are almost the exact equivalent of the great Gothic cathedrals" (press here).
- Add a 5th - Roland Barthes. "The Death of the Author." Image, Music, Text. Ed. and trans. Stephen Heath. New York: Hill, 1977 (press here).
- Or 6th - Barthes goes beyond Structuralism (press here).
- Example - Roland Barthes. Section I (Chapters 1–4): Method. The Fashion System. 1967. Trans.. Matthew Ward and Richard Howard. New York: Hill, 1983. 000–000 (press here).
- Introduction to Helene Cixous by Julie Jasken (press here).
More Resources (should you want to dig deeper):
- Brief Slide Show of relation of text, intertext and textual production.
- Brief definition of Semiotics and textual influence.
- Very brief definition from Encyclopedia.
- *Brief Definition of Intertextuality (and Spatialization) based on Kristeva (1980: 69). What is the horizontal and the Vertical Axes of the analysis?
- Brief Definition - based in Bruno Latour's work.
- Brief Definition - based on network metaphor.
- *Bit Longer Definition - based on Kristeva but highlighting overlap to Roland Barthes' work (i.e. Death of the Author).
- Example - Applies Kriesteva's intertext work to hypertext where intertextuality is a "mosaic" of multiple textual fragments.
- Example - Applies intertextuality to film, The English Patient.
- Example - Stereotypes as intertext (symposium).
- Austin's speech act theory (press here).
- Intro to Kenneth Burke (press here).
- Barthes, Roland, "From work to text", in: BARTHES, R., Image – Music – Text, New York 1986.
- Fairclough. Chapter 4 "Intertextuality, pp. 101-136 in Discourse and Social Change 1992 Polity Press.
- Plett, H. F. (ed.), Intertextuality, Berlin 1991.
- Riffaterre, Michael. "Intertextuality vs. Hypertextuality." New Literary History. 1994, 25.
- HQR: Stanfield II. Ethnic modeling in QR. Pp. 175-188.
- HQR: Holstein & Gubrium. Phenomenology, Ethnomethodology, and interpretive practice. Pp. 262-272.
- GC. Waddell. Saving the Great Lakes: Public participation in environmental policy. Pp. 141-165.
- GC. Cantrill. Gold, Yellowstone, and the search for a rhetorical identity. Pp. 166-194.
- GC. Brown & Herndl. Beyond the realm of reason: Understanding the extreme environmental rhetoric of the John Birch Society. Pp. 213-235.
- Gergen, K. J. (1994). Realities and relationships: Soundings in social construction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
INTERTEXTUALITY - PART ii
Intertextuality Analysis Part II - Vertical Axis
As we move a citation or quote from one text to another we cut off its social, political, and economic context in ways that transform meaning in radical ways. "We will focus on how the assumptions are formed within a social/political/historical context, and how all "texts" are intertwined within these systems" (press here). In this analysis we unravel the intertextual weave of textual production, distribution, and consumption. No text is an island it is produced in streams of production and ready to read in its consumption. I call it verticality.
Assignment - Do a Vertical Intertextual Analysis of several Press Releases listed last week. Here are some initial questions (press here). Follow on with a hegemony analysis (See Boje, Luhman & Baak).
Please review - Example of Intertextual Analysis of Spectacle: Enron. Enron is rich in antenarrative traces. Here we are concerned with the vertical flight of the antenarrative as it creates invisible traces in hegemonic ways. The vertical dimension of intertextuality is what Freire (1970: 93) calls “concentric circles moving from the general to the particular.” Or, from the local to the superstructures that dominate our sensemaking with collective conscious illusion. An intertextual antenarrative can either resist ideological control or be a way to ensnare us into the web.
More Background - I did some re-reading of Kristeva (1980: 65) and found it was on Bakhtin's dialogic of text and context and particularly his concepts of the polyphonic and carnivalesque novels that Kristeva demarcated intertextual from structural or comparative analyses. Kristeva (1980: 78) says carnival is the double, "it is a spectacle, but without a stage; a game, but also a daily undertaking; a signifier, but also a signified." The context of the carnival is the crowd, the stage, the actors, and the game itself.
Intertextuality analysis has moved carnival aside. For example, I note that Fairclough's (1992) approach to intertextuality analysis does not include carnivalesque, but instead gives it a different (and still useful) twist. For Fairclough the bottom line is a hegemonic analysis of intertextuality. With this move he resituates intertextuality analysis into the philosophy of critical theory, into the vertical axis of not only context but power.
- *NA: Intertextuality
- *Boje, Luhman & Baak (1999) Journal of Management Inquiry article on Hegemony.
- *HQR: Kincheloe & McLaren. Rethinking critical theory and QR. Pp. 138-157.
- *HANDOUT: Barker, James R. 1993. Tightening the iron cage: Concertive control in self-managing teams. Administrative Science Quarterly. 38: 408-437 (and lecture notes by Barker).
- *HANDOUT: Bell (in Todd & Fisher). Becoming a political woman: The reconstruction and interpretation of experience through stories. Pp. 97-123.
- *HANDOUT: Rockwell. "Speaking fragments: Institutionality and subjectivity in conversational processes.
- HQR: Schwandt. Constructivst, interpretivist approaches to human inquiry. Pp. 118-137.
- *HANDOUT. Barrett. The organizational construction of hegemonic masculinity: The case of the US Navy. Pp. 129-142.
More Materials (should you want to explore)
- *Links Intertextuality and Intertext from a critical (hegemonic) perspective. For example, a hypertext can be put together to lead you to a "correct" (read-to-hand) reading/interpretation. This is a debate with another author over the "ready to hand" consumptive meaning of intertexts.
- Example of Intertextuality in Advertising and Marketing - This has more to do with Part II - the Vertical Axis, in this case of environmental situatedness. Good example of how text can be images, not just words. For example, What is the environmental context of this image? (press here).
- Example of Intertextuality in Painting. "Translating, this "intertraffique of the minde", is both an act of appropriation, a conquest, and the recognition that the experiences of other peoples deserve to be known and understood." Site is not about painting, but connects intertextuality to James Joyce and other literary works.
- Example of Intertextuality in Media, in TV. For example, how a TV show is framed by others in its genre, commercials, political events, etc.
Example of Intertextuality in Media, in Elvis.
- The Critical Theory School - History of the Frankfurt School (press here).
- Mikhail Bakhtin
- Try the Bakhtin Search Engine (press here). I entered "carnival" and picked up 20 sites with annotated biblios.
- e.g. "The Semiotic Theory of Carnival as the Inversion of Bipolar
Opposites" by Ivanov, V.V. 1984 (press here).
"Bakhtin's theory of the disruptive effect of carnival has great significance for contemporary ethnographers in relation to the investigation of the nature of binary oppositions... Reference is made to Lévi-Strauss's argument that the synthesis of polarized opposites is a major factor in myths and rituals, and to Bakhtin's view that the hierarchical arrangement of binaries will fluctuate from one era and culture to another.
- *Hegemony is described in the Fontana Dictionary of Modern Thought as "Political and economic control exercised by a dominant class, and its success in projecting its own way of seeing the world, human and social relationships as 'common sense' and part of the natural order by those who are, in fact, subordinated to it." (press here).
- *5 more definitions by Antonio Gramsci and others (press here).
- A simple and short definition (press here). And another (press here).
- Marxist Media Theory by Daniel Chandler (press here). Good intro piece.
- ACTIVIST PIECES
- The Osage: An Ethnohistorical Study of Hegemony on the Prairie-Plains by Willard H. Rollings (press here).
- The Chiapas Action Center at Yale - Activist applications (press here).
- Hegemony and Beyond - Activist with references (press here).
- Both Democrats and Republicans in Favor of U.S. 'World Hegemony' by Carson Watkins (from the September 1996 issue of The Nationalist Times) (press here).
- Combating Regional and Global Hegemony Need for Strategic Consensus by Columnist Dr SM RAHMAN (press here).
- Activist Journal - Bad Subjects: People Building the New Hegemony (press here).
- APPLICATIONS OF HEGEMONY
- *Teaching "Hegemonic assumptions about teaching have caused great harm: “The dark irony and cruelty of hegemony is that teachers take pride in acting on the very assumptions that work to enslave them.” (press here). There is a slide show (press here).
- Gender Relations: Why the Idea of Hegemony is Adopted in Place of the Domestic-Public Dichotomy Explanation (press here).
- Gramsci and Hegemony (press here). Site builds set of random modules for course instruction.
- Apply intertextuality to Pondy's Conflict Model. Pondy, L.R. 1967. "Organizational conflict: concept and models," Administrative Science Quarterly, 12: 296-320.
- Slide (press here).
- Segway - About BAKHTIN the man (press here). "not exactly a Marxist..." Good discussion of how Bakhtin differs from Saussure. And an excellent discussion of heteroglossia and monologia.
- The Bakhtin Circle was a contemporary school of Russian thought
which centered on the work of Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (1895-1975).(press here).
- The Space between Critic and Author: Interpreting Bakhtin's Poetics by Simon DeDeo, December 6, 1996.(press here).
- Thesis - What Hath Bakhtin Wrought? Toward a Unified Theory of Literature and Composition by Lee Honeycutt (press here).
- Article - The Phoenix of Philosophy: On the Meaning and Significance of Contemporary Russian Thought by Mikhail Epstein (press here). Note: Article links Russian formalism to Marxist philosophy and to poststructuralism.
- Article - Dialogue, Difference, and the "Third Voice" in the Zone of Proximal Development by J. Allan Cheyne and Donato Tarulli (press here).
- Biblio of VYGOTSKY, Bourdieu and Bakhtin (press here).
- Good Links list (press here).
- GC. Ingham. Landscape, drama, and dissensus: The rhetorical education of Red Lodge, Montana. Pp. 195-212.
- GC. Cooper. Environmental rhetoric in the age of hegemonic politics: Earth First! And the Nature Conservancy. Pp. 236-260.
- GC. Katz & Miller. The low-level radioactive waste siting controversy in North Caroling: Toward a theatrical model of risk communication. Pp. 111-140.
- See Enron Plots.
MODULE - 6 (narrative) Causality Analysis or (use menu to your left)