David Boje's Annotated Bibliography on Storytelling and Consulting ('We won't read em all, be selective'). RETURN TO MAIN SITE

Aristotle (written 350BCE). Poetics Note: Citing in the (1954) translation Aristotle: Rhetoric and poetics. Introduction by F. Solmsen, Rhetoric. (W. Rhys Roberts, Tran.); Poetics (I. Bywater, Tran.). New York, NY: The Modern Library (Random House). Poetics was written 350 BCE;. Custom is to cite part and verse (i.e. Aristotle, 350 BCE: 1450b, # 5, p. 23) refers to part 1450b, verse 5, on p. 23 of the Solmsen (1954) book. There is also an on line version translated by S. H. Butcher http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/poetics.html  or  http://eserver.org/philosophy/aristotle/poetics.txt OK, the Poetics book is amazing; it lays out the corner stones for all that narratology would become. Unfortunately narratology and folklore did not pick up on the epic storytelling theory in this work (see Boje & Rosile, 2003). The epic story (more than tightly-framed narrative) is much more amenable to consulting and understanding the complexity side of organizations. So use on line copy or get your own copy of the book, because the course starts here. What are differences between (dramatic) narrative and epic story? What are six elements of narrative, and which are most to least important for Aristotle? Has this changed today? It is also important to learn how stortelling and theatre are related. So how are they related? (Hint, narrative theatrics [one one stage, w/ seated audience] is different from epic story theatrics, as in Tamara [w/ multiple simultaneous rooms & fragmenting, netowrking audience on the run, chasing storylines & actors from room to room]).

Bakhtin, M. 1973. Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics (C. Emerson, Ed. & Trans.). Manchester, England: Manchester University Press; written in 1929. In this book, you can find the "castle room" chronotope 'discursive unit of space, time & ideology' [see ALEŠ VAUPOTIC for contrast of Bakhtin & Foucault; Wittenstein for definitions of chronotope], and one learns about "such would be the polyphonic manner of the story" (p. 60), and what pray tell is the "fabric of the story" (p. 45) and how is this polyphonic "dialogicality: (p. 14, 34) manifest in some storytelling organizations and some polyphonic organizational story strategy?. In the Castle Chronotope, is a special living room where dialogues become important because the character’s passionate ideas are revealed; “It is in here where a visible and concrete form of the omnipresent power of the new owner of life is reveled: money” (Bakhtin, 1973: 456). The “castle” form of narrative chronotope occurs in the novels of Stendhal and Balzac (p. 456; page # needs correction). Page. 4 you can find wonderous quote about "plurality of independent and unmerged voices and consciousnesses and the genuine polyphony of full valued voices" of polyphonic novel (more on p. 65). It is the polyphonic unmergedness (p. 4) and unfinalizability/unfinalizedness (p. 33, 43) that is what I call "systemicity" (see Boje, 1991, below). p. 6 & 13 have a bit more on "unmerged consciousnesses" of polyphonic storytelling that is about a "whirlwind movement of events" (p. 11).. And I think Bakhtin (1973: 13) sees "narrative genre" as imprisoned in "monological framework"; and not the epic-story circumstance of polyphony with its different"dialogicality" (p. 14) than the "narrative fabric" (p. 11) which is 'homophonic'.(p. 17). In short, narrative is "finalized monological whole" while epic story (my term) is polyphonic unmergedness of chaotic consciousnesses and unfinalizibility of the systemic whole. "This is not a story" (Bakhtin, 1973:. 44) says Dostoevsky in his into to 'A Gentle Creature'; yet if not a story, what is this writing; I say it is an Antenarrative (Boje, 2001). Bakhtin (1929/1973: 44-45) cites a segment of “A Gentle Creature” where Dostoevsky says something that sounds quite a bit like "antenarrative":

"The point is that this is not a story and not a sketch. Imagine a husband whose wife, a suicide who several hours earlier has thrown herself out a window, is laid out on a table before him. He is distraught and has not yet had time to gather his thoughts. He paces to and from one room to another trying to comprehend what has taken place, to ‘get his thoughts together. In addition, he is a confirmed hypochondriac, one of those who talk to themselves. So he talks to himself, relating what has happened, explaining it to himself. Despite the apparent continuity of what he says, he contradicts himself several times, both in his logic and in his emotions. He justifies himself and blames his wife; he enters into extraneous explanations, now displaying crudity of thought and of heart, now deep emotion. Gradually he does in fact explain matters to himself and does ‘get his thoughts together.’ The series of recollections which he has evoked leads him irresistably to the truth; the truth irresistably edifies his mind and his heart. Toward the end even the tone of the story is modified, in relation to its disorderly beginning. The truth reveals itself rather clearly and definitively to the bereaved, or at least it seems so to him.


Such is the theme. Of course the action of the story takes place over several hours, with fits and starts and in a confused and erratic form: first he speaks to himself, then he addresses an invisible listener, as if addressing a judge" (emphasis, mine).


Bakhtin, M. M. 1990. Art and Answerability. Editied by Michael Holquist & Vadim Liapunov. Translation and Notes by Vadim Liapunov; supplement translated by Kenneth Brostrom. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. From Bakhtin’s first published article and his early 1920s notebooks.


Bakhtin, M. M. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays by M.M. Bakhtin (ed. Holquist, M.). Austin: University of Texas Press. In this book the dialogic of chronotopicity (relativity of time/space in storytelling) and the dialogic of the multiple stylistics gets worked out. Bakhtin develops partially the poloyphonic dialogics, but that is more developed in Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics.

Barge (2002) takes an antenarrative approach to organizational communication and managerial practice by focusing attention on ways people manage the multi-voiced nonlinear character of organizational life. Antenarrative, for example, says Barge (2002: 7) “requires managers to recognize the multiplicity of stories living and being told in organizations.” He gives examples of the managerial practice in the Kensington Consultation Centre in London.

Barry, D. & Elmes, M. 1997. "Strategy retold: Toward a narrative view of strategic discourse." Academy of Management Review, 22(2) 429-452. Applied in general theory to strategic change. This article looks at storytelling approach to study of corporate strategy. The article builds upon two "epic" story categories ('Greek Romance,' & 'Chivalric Adventure') from Bakhitin (1981, Dialogic Imagination) chronotopes (means relativity of time/space in storytelling) and some other categories (one from Mintzberg called 'Techno-futurists' & one from a narrative theory called 'purist'). So guess what, there is lots to do here, since Bakhtin has 10 chronotopes (9 from Dialogic Imagination book & 1 from 1973, Problems w/ Dostoevsky's Poetic: called 'Castle Room'). In short, many of the chronotopes are unexplored.

Most of the following articles on storytelling can be found in pre-pub draft form at http://business.nmsu.edu/mgt/dir/faculty/vita/boje/

Boje, D. M. 1991. "The storytelling organization: A study of storytelling performance in an office supply firm." Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 36: pp.106-126. This was part of a consulting project. This is first invention of storytelling organization theory. Storytelling organization is defined as “a collective system[icity] in which the performance of stories is a key part of members' sensemaking and a means to allow them to supplement individual memories with institutional memory" (Boje, 1991: 106). Storytelling organization “systemicity,” unlike mechanical, open, or organic system-wholeness, is never quite accomplished, rather riddled with partial tellings, story-starting and stopping behaviors, referencing intertextual in-betweenness, gaps, pauses, assumed agreements about story-wholeness that rarely get checked out. Terse Story – “A terse telling is an abbreviated and succinct simplification of the story in which parts of the plot, some of the characters, and segments of the sequence of events are left to the hearer's imagination” (Boje, 1991)


Boje, D. M. 1995. "Stories of the storytelling organization: A postmodern analysis of Disney as 'Tamara-land'" Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 38 (4): 997-1035. Tamara is a play in which storytelling occurs in many rooms of a mansion; all simultaneous.

Boje, D. M. 1998. "The Postmodern Turn form Stories-as-Objects to Stories-in-Context Methods" Research Methods Forum No. 3 (Fall 1998): 1-4 http://www.aom.pace.edu/rmd/1998_forum_postmodern_stories.html This is a reivew of story literature and method, with focus on differences in in situ story methods involving ethnogrpahy versus the practice of collecting stories by interview and focus group. The claim is made that for complexity and emergence story work, the in situ approach offers advantages.

Boje, D. M. 1999a. Nike, Greek goddess of victory or cruelty? Women's stories of Asian factory life." Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 11 (8): 461-480. This article so offended Phil Knight's minions that Boje was banned by JOCM from every writing the word "Nike" again. http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/papers/BojeVol11and6NikeGREEKgoddess.htm


Boje, D. M. 1999b Is Nike Roadrunner or Wile E. Coyote? A Postmodern Organization Analysis of Double Logic," Journal of Business & Entrepreneurship, March, Vol II. 77-109. http://business.nmsu.edu/mgt/jpub/boje/nikerrcoyote/index.html


Boje, D. M. 2000a. Phenomenal complexity theory and change at Disney. Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 13(6): 558-566. This was to be an article on Nike, but after the rucus with JOCM and Nike, decided to critique Disney instead http://business.nmsu.edu/%7Edboje/papers/Disney_phenomenal_complexity.html Story has often been used as a sort of in-place metering device, a way to measure some phenomenon, such as culture or in this case complexity. People are asked to tell as story, as a measure. The issue I want to raise is that story is also a vital element of what Hugo Letiche calls "phenomenal complexity." As Hugo says "Each phenomenal truth is a process of difference embedded in multiple perspectives, and these contest and deny one another. The world of complexity is rich in heteroglossia such that we are always interconnected and a part of it rather than able to be somehow objectively distant from it." Heteroglossia comes for Bakhtin's (1981) work, which anticipates Derrida's differance theory.


Boje, D. M. 2000b. "Nike corporate writing of academic, business, and cultural Practices." Management Communication Quarterly, issue on Essays for the Popular Management Forum, Volume4, Number 3: 507-516. Story of how Nike influences corporate writing http://business.nmsu.edu/%7Edboje/papers/Nike_corporate_writing_shortversion.html

Boje, D. M. 2001a. Narrative Methods for Organizational and Communication Research. London: Sage. Order from Amazon Has basic analyses such as deconstruction, theme analysis, grand narrative, plot, story network, etc. and introduces concept of antenarrative. Antenarrative is a bet and a pre-story that can aspire to be very transformative. “Antenarrative” is defined as “the fragmented, non-linear, incoherent, collective, unplotted and pre-narrative speculation, a bet” –Boje (2001: 1)

Boje, D.M. 2001b. Carnivalesque resistance to global spectacle: A critical postmodern theory of public administration, Administrative Theory & Praxis, 23(3), 431-458.* http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/papers/carnivalesque_resistance_to_glob.htm

Boje, D. M. forthcoming. The Antenarrative Cultural Turn in Narrative Studies. To appear in book edited by Mark Zachry & Charlotte Thralls The Cultural Turn Communicative Practices in Workplaces and the Professions. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing View pre-publication PFD

Boje, D. M. 2004. "Beyond Open Systems: Commentary on 'Complexity, Stories, & Knowing,'" Emergence: Complexity and Organization Journal, 6(4): 88-89. http://business.nmsu.edu/mgt/jpub/ PDF version of entire article and commentaries http://emergence.org/ECO_site/Emergence_Archive/Issue%206_4/Guerrini_Spagnuolo.pdf What I left out of above commentary, is the move to "Third cybernetics" - I think this is what the Emergence: Complexity and Organization forthcoming special issue can get at. If you look at Pondy's language game move (toward Chomsky), it does not get to the upper reaches of Boulding's (1956) system complexity (e.g.e levels 6 to 9; this is where Bakhtin's philosophy of language could come in.

Boje, D. M. 2005a. Antenarrative in management research. Sage Dictionary, forthcoming. Click here


Boje, D. M. 2005b. Dialogism in management research. Sage Dictionary, forthcoming. Click here


Boje, D. M. 2005c. Story in management research. Sage Dictionary, forthcoming.Click here


Boje, D. M. 2005d. Antenarration Inquiry: The Utrecht lecture on exposition. Utrecht University, 16 Mar 05, published in 2005 Annual Review of Management and Organization Inquiry (sc’MOI). Copy available at http://scmoi.org proceedings section. Main point of article is that story need not be about cohesion, with linear plots of beginning, middle, and end (an obsession of anrratology since Aristotle, and of folklore for a century). Click here for proceedings paper


Boje, D. M. 2005e. From Wilda to Disney: Living Stories in Family and Organization Research. Chapter accepted for Jean Clandinin (ed), Handbook of Narrative Inquiry (London: Sage). Introduces one version of a living story concept. Click Here.


Boje, D. M. 2005g. Wilda. Journal of Management Sprituality & Religion, Vol 2 (3): Article: 342-364, Epilogue: 399-405. Story about Boje's grandmother Wilda, a trick rider in the rodeo and a powerful enchantress of the wilderness. The article introduces "Polypi Dialogism" as a model of late capitalism; in the telling I place Granny Wilda as the enchantress in the midst of the Polypi.. By now you know there are four Bakhtinian dialogisms (polyphonic, stylistic, chronotopic, & architectonic); so polypi dialogism is defined as the dialogism of these four dialogisms. Click Here for Wilda essay and commentaries by Eduardo Berrera, Heather Hopfl, Hans Hansen, David Barry, Gerald Bibberman, & Robin Matthews). Click Here

Boje, D. M. 2005h. Breaking Out of narrative’s Prison: Improper Story in Storytelling Organization In review at Story, Self & Society Journal. Working paper on line CLICK here

Boje, D. M. 2005i. Complexity and Storytelling. Working paper on how theries of Deleuze and Guattari (1987) Thousand Plateaus can be applied to storytelling organization complexity. The theory is about deterritorialization, territorialization, and reterritorialization stories and antenarratives. The notes are produced to help contributors to special issue on story and complexity of E:CO journal (Emergence: Complexity & Organization) special issue Click here.

Boje, D. M. 2006a. Pitfalls in Storytelling Advice and Praxis. Academy of Management Review, Vol 31 (1): 218-224)..This is a review of six storytelling consulting books, and consulting practices. Issues are raises and opportunities for future research. Click here.

Boje, D. M. 2006b. Time, Place and Mind of Intellectual Capital:. Commentary on Kenneth Mlbjerg Jørgensen’s “Conceptualising intellectual capital (IC) as language game and power.” Accepted for publication in David ODonnell, Lars Bo Henriksen and Sven C. Voelpel (Guest Eds), Journal of Intellectual Capital, Volume 7 Number 1, 2006. Special Issue - Intellectual Capital: Becoming Critical. Click Here.

Boje, D. M. 2006c. Open Systems. Accepted for puublicaiton in S. Clegg and Baker, James R. International Encyclopedia of Organization Studies. London: Sage. Click here for pre-publicaiton pdf. Builds upon Boje 2004, 2005b, e, g, i.; Boje & Baskin, 2005.

Boje, D. M. 2006d. The Dark Side of Knowledge Reengineering Meets Narrative/Story. Organization: The Critical Journal of Organization, Theory and Society. Click here for pre-publication pdf. This is a book review of Knowledge Management and Narratives: Organizational Effectiveness Through Storytelling, edited by Georg Schreyögg and Jochen Koch. The essay contributes by mdistinguishing the interrelationships between four ways Knowledge Reengineers approach tacitness by interrogating story narratives. The book confuses three types of sensemaking (T1 retro narrative coherence, T3 enactment archetypes, T2 fragments of terse retrospection), and struggles to understand what to do with T4 multi-story discursive interanimation. Chapter authors appear to try to herd sensemaking into T1 from the other three ways of telling.

Boje, D. M. 2006e.It is Time to Set Story Free from Narrative Prison! May 5th 2006 Presentation #1025 to 2nd International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry (Panel ID: 102) Qualitative inquiry in the business and management field, University of Illinois. Click here for pdf version

Boje, D. M.& Al Arkoubi , K. 2005. Third Cybernetic Revolution: Beyond Open to Dialogic System Theories. Tamara Journal. Vol 4, 6. Click here for pre-publication draft.

Boje, D. M. with Ken Baskin. 2005. Emergence of Third Cybernetics. E:CO Emergence: Complexity & Organization Journal. Vol. 7 (3-4): v-viii. Special Issue on Complexity and Story' guest editors: Ken Baskin & David Boje Click Here for HTML or CLICK HERE for PDF of pre-press pages.

Boje, D. M. & Y. Cai. 2004. McDonald's: Grotesque Method and the Metamorphosis of the three Spheres: McDonald's, McDonaldland, and McDonaldization. Metamorphosis Journal. Vol 3 (1): 15-33. Storytelling analysis of how corporation keeps inventing and contermporalizing its identity through story Click here This article picks up on Bakhtin's work in his dissertation work on carnivalesque, and on ideas in Dialogic Imagination. The thesis is that McDonald's and other storytelling organizations are able to contemporalize their storied strategies through two stylistic lines of transformation, and by employing grotesque humor (descending and ascending from netherworld in corporate fictioning).


Boje, D. M. & Y. Cai 2005. A Laclau & Mouffe Discursive Critique of McJob. For Nico Carpentier (ed), Discourse Theory and Cultural Analysis. Sage. How McDonald's deals with the McJob controversey


Boje, D. M.; Y. Cai & E. Thomas. 2005. book chapter: Regenerating McDonaldland: A Play of Grotesque Humor. Play accepted as part of a book chapter, Humour, Organisation and Work. (Eds) Robert Westwood (University of Queensland Business School) &Carl Rhodes (University of Technology Sydney). THis is text of the play that was performed at four academic conferences; and in one of these caused the removal of lead author as President of the conference, and led to the founding of http://scmoi.org conference. What kind of corporation is this that employs a crew of corpses, and places a clown with the white mask of death on its board of directors, making him ambassador to children, and to the new fitness/nutirtion strategic story told? How is it this death clown travels from the netherworld of McDonaldland to board room, and live shows in scheels and restaurants. Is he king of the postmodern carnival?


Boje, D. M.; M. Driver; & Y. Cai. 2005. Fiction and Humor in Transforming McDonald’s Narrative Strategies. Culture and Organization, Vol. 11(3): 195–208. This article introduces idea of humor as a conscious corporate strategy; it is a bit ahead of the field and its time. Click Here


Boje, D. M.; E. Enríquez; M. T. González; & E. Macías. 2005. Architectonics of McDonald’s Cohabitation with Wal-Mart: An Exploratory study of Ethnocentricity. Journal, Critical Perspectives on International Business. This is story about our local Super Wal-Mart and the McDonald's murals therein. Architectonics is Bakhtin's word (see Art & Answerability above) for a special kind of dialogism (the dialogism of the discourses of ethics, aesthetics, and cognitve).Kant developed cognitive architectonics, Bakhtin makes it dialogic with two other discourses. Click Here

Boje, D. M.; Gardner, Carolyn L. & Smith, William L. 2005. (Mis)Using Numbers in the Enron Story. Accepted for publication in Ethnostatistics Special Issue (Bob Gephart, ed), in Organizational Research Methodologies Journal 2005. ORM Journal is one of the top 20 rated tier-one ranked journals in management. Click Here.

Boje, D.M., Luhman, J. & Baack, D. 1999. " Hegemonic Tales of the Field: A Telling Research Encounter between Storytelling Organizations." October issue of Journal of Management Inquiry. 8(4): 340-360. This is about a Choral company that went to an Academy conference and had a close encounter with a qualitative research doctoral seminar.

Boje, David, M.; Oswick, Cliff; Ford, Jeffrey D.LANGUAGE AND ORGANIZATION: THE DOING OF DISCOURSE . Academy of Management Review, 2004, Vol. 29, Issue 4: 571-77. pre-publication copy at http://peaceaware.com/McD/papers/Boje_Oswick_Ford_AMR_2004.pdf


Boje, D. M. & C. Rhodes. 2005a. The Leadership of Ronald McDonald: Double Narration and Stylistic Lines of Transformation. Accepted for publication in Leadership Quarterly journal on April 9, 2005. This is storytelling study of why Ronald is a leader and introduces the virtual leader construct (VLC). VLC is brand new idea, and this is its first time out of the box. VLC is idea that through storyteling and some theatrics the organization constructs virtual leaders. http://peaceaware.com/McD/papers/Ronald_McDonald_LQ_2005.pdf


Boje, D. M. & C. Rhodes. 2005b. The Virtual Leader Construct: The Mass Mediatization and Simulation of Transformational Leadership, Accepted for publication in Leadership Journal. This takes the VLC concept a step further, into an industry analysis using Baudriallards three orders of simulacra" FIRST ORDER: Dave Thomas (Wendy’s) retires and is rehired to imitate himself. SECOND ORDER: Colonel dies and cartoon version imitates him. THIRD ORDER: Ronald is simulation that has no original human being; can be adapted to fit each nation (e.g. Thailand – greeting customers)
http://peaceaware.com/McD/papers/Fast_Food_Virtual_Leadership%20_Boje_Rhodes.pdf


Boje, D. M. & G.A. Rosile. 2002. Enron Whodunit? Ephemera, 2(4), pp. 315-327. So you think plots are simple or complex the way aristotle (350 BCE promised they would be. What if the organiztion, such as Enron, is multi-plotted, then it is more an epic storytelling environment than the ground for simplistic dramatic emplotment. http://www.ephemeraweb.org/journal/2-4/2-4bojeandrosile.pdf


Boje, D. M. & G.A. Rosile. 2003a. Life Imitates Art: Enron’s Epic and Tragic Narration. Management Communication Quarterly, 17 (1): 85-125. This takes the idea of Epis Story a step further in a systematic analysis of Enron storyies that construct epic story.

Boje, D. M. & G. A. Rosile. 2003b Comparison of Socio- Economic and other transorganizational development methods. Accepted for publication in Journal of Organizational Change Management. Special issueSocio-Economic Approach to Management, Henri Savall (Guest Editor). Vol. 16 (1): 10-20.

45. Boje, D. M. & G. A. Rosile. 2003c Theatrics of SEAM. Accepted for publication in Journal of Organizational Change Management. Special issueSocio-Economic Approach to Management, Henri Savall (Guest Editor). Vol. 16 (1): 21-32. Pre-publication draft at http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/theatrics/manual/THEATRE%20OF%20SEAM%2027JUNE02.DOC


Boje, D. M., Rosile, G.A., Durant, R.A. & Luhman, J.T. 2004 Enron Spectacles: A Critical Dramaturgical Analysis. Special Issue on Theatre and Organizations edited by Georg Schreyögg and Heather Höpfl, Organization Studies, 25(5):751-774. There are multiple types of spectacle (bureaucratic to mega spectacle scandal). This article reviews thousands of news stories (by sampling) and comes up with a typology of spectacles.http://business.nmsu.edu/mgt/jpub/boje/enron.pdf

Antenarratives become part of Enron’s facade, and they become ways to unmask that facade, to resist narrow tragic narration. Enron made the antenarrative bluff that Washington politicians, business professors, and Wall Street analysts would not be able to distinguish between fiction and real. Antenarrative plays a special role in the emergent oscillating, contending, and morphing labyrinth of Enron SPEs, and in their unraveling.

Boyce, M.E. 1995. Collective centering and collective sensemaking. Organizational Studies, 16, : 107-130. Derived from Boje's 1995 work on storytelling organization

Brohm, B. 2005. Catalysts of Meaning. Presentaiton to CMS 2005, 4th International Critical Management Studies Conference, 'Critique
and Inclusivity: Opening the Agenda', ‘Organizational Dynamics: Knowledge, Information and Innovation’ Click here for on line copy The paper makes a connection between Letiche's (2000) phenomenal complexity and theatre. The idea relates to story as phenomenal complexity (Boje, 2000a, see above). That is, in emergence coherence, or that I call antenarrative, is backgrounded by more coherenent narrative (see Czarniawska, 2004). Brohm's focus is on enactment sensemaking, but there are other modes of sensemaking (See Boje, 2006 book). Complexity in this case is interplay of emergenent and more resolute coherence.


Bryant, M. & J. W. Cox. 2004. Conversion stories as shifting narratives of organizational change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 17 (6): 578-592.


Collins, D. & K. Rainwater. 2005. Managing change at Sears: a sideways look at a tale of corporate transformation. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 18(1): 16-30. Applies boje's concept of antenarrative in a study of Sear's storytelling.

About the relation of narrative and stories that are antenarrative: “… Gabriel’s analysis suggests that Boje’s terse fragments of ‘antenarrative; sensemaking are better understood in terms other than those reserved for storytelling” (p. 11). “Disputing Boje’s reservations regarding plots and direction, therefore, Gabriel insists that (properly so-called) stories build on ‘poetic’ qualities, and so, depend upon plots, embroidery and embellishment… (p. 11). “Gabriel seems to subordinate the listener to the monologue of the storyteller… audience must know its place: (p. 12).

Culler, Jonathen, 1981. the pursuit of Signs: Semiotics, Liteature, Deconstruction.. Ithica, New York: Cornell University Press. (This is one of the better interpreters of Derrida's deconstruction moves). See chapter 9: Story and Discourse in the Analysis of Narrative pp. 169-187. Culler develops the double logic theory of STORY and NARRATIVE. STORY is usually restricted to be linear, chronological sequence of events. Narrative is the story all plotted as reported in the way a proper story is to be told; the narration of a sequence of events or the representation of a sequence of event. STORY is successive and/or simultaneous events; STORY is "set of events in their chronological order, their spatial locations, and their relations with the actors who cause or undergo them" (p. 171). This idea of STORY having landscape of spatiality fits will with Tamara Boje, 1995), while idea of alternative temporalites, combines well in Bakhtin's (1981) chronotope (relativity of time/space) theory. NARRATIVE subverts the events of STORY making them the product of discursive forces or discursive production. STORY is Fabula (first a cause, then an effect)and NARRATIVE is sjuzhet (first the effect, then search to produce a cause). NARRATIVE plot is beased upon some theory of causation, a narrative structure where the presence of a prior0cause producing effect is assumed. Culler makes the point that there is an undecidability between STORY and NARRATIVE logics. One can deconstruct the two logics, showing their hierarchical arrangement, and then doing the reversal. In story narratology requires the plot be reconstructed in a sequence of events; NARRATIVE orders the events, deciding upon some primal event.

Czarniawska, B. 1997. Narrating the Organization: Dramas of Institutional Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Defines narrative as the plot, the beginning, middle and end, or causal solution to a problem. E.g. “A story consists of a plot comprising causally related episodes that culminate in a solution to a problem” (Czarniawska, 1997: 78)

Czarniawska, B. 1998. A Narrative Approach to Organization Studies. Qualitative Research methods Series Vol. 43. Thousand Oaks, Ca; Sage Publications, Inc. continues to define narrative as simple plots

Czarniawska, B. 2004. Narratives in Social Science Research. London: Sage. Moves to a recognition that storytelling in organztions can be quite unplotted, and tellings do not always have beginning, middle, or end (relates to Boje's 1991 terse storytelling ideas). Introduces petrified narrative, which makes nice counter form to emergent antenarratives.


Dalcher, D. & Drevin, L. 2003. Learning from information systems failures by using narrative and antenarrative methods. Proceedings of SAICSIT, pages 137-142. Develops Boje (2001) antenarrative concept. Dalcher and Drevin (2003), for example, are studying software failures in information systems using narrative and antenarrative methods. On the one hand, “failure storytelling can be understood as a narrative recounting with the unlocking of patterns or a plot” (Dalcher & Drevin, 2003: 140). A more antenarrative process focuses on how “the reality in failure stories is of multi-stranded stories of experiences and reactions that lack collective consensus” (p. 141). During lack of collective consensus, there are more disparate accounts and perspectives, where webs of narrative and antenarrative work things out.


Denning, S. 2001. The Springboard: How Storytelling Ignites Action in Knowledge-Era Organizations. Boston/Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. A fairly silly approach to story, as if a leader could just craft one and change the whole organiztion with it.

Gabriel, Y.A. 2000. Storytelling in Organizations: Facts, fictions, and fantasies. London: Oxford University Press.Scholaorly piece of organizaitonal folklore, but includes a nifty debate with Boje (p. 20 footnote 8) on whether a terse-told story is a "proper" story. Raises important question about where does story reside? Start with what is to Gabriel the "proper story", one submordinated to "narrative" defined as having “plots and characters, generating emotion in narrator and audience, through a poetic elaboration of symbolic material” – Gabriel (2000: 239)


Gardner, C. 2002. An exploratory study of bureaucratic, heroic, chaos, postmodern and hybrid story typologies of the expatriate journey. Dissertation in Management Department of College of Business Administration and Economics.Disserataion based on the themes typology in Boje (2001)

Georges, R. .1969. Toward an understanding of story-telling events. Journal of American Folklore, 82: 314-328. This is one of the ideas fundmental to Boje (1991) article on performative story, how meaning is in the performance, in between teller and listener

Kaye, M. 1996. Myth-makers and story-tellers. Sydney, NSW, Australia: Business & Professional Publishing Pty Ltd Builds on Boje's (1991) storytelling organization theory to build a wildly succesful consulting practice. Wish I knew how Michael and his wife pulled it off.

Landrum, N. E. 2000. A quantitative and Qualitative Examination of the Dynamics of Nike and Reebok Storytelling as Strategy. Dissertation, New Mexico State University, Management Department. Dissertation on Nike and Reebock annual report storytelling. Really quite an exemplary piece of work.

Latour, Bruno. 1996. Aramis or the Love of Texhnology. Trans Catherine Porter. Cambridge, MASS: harvard University Press. Latour (1996: 118) argues there is a difference between the linear narrative diffusion model (narratives that erupt fully formed in the mind of Zeus) and the non-linear whirlwind model of what we call antenarrative. Looking at both models in the same story space of complex organization is a collaborative way to proceed.

Letiche, H. 2000. Phenomenal complexity theory as informed by Bergson. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 13(6), 545-558. Hugo's article argues that it is the variety of meaning phenomena that constitutes complexity. See Brohm (2005) and Boje 2000a above.

O’Conner, E. 2002. Storied business: Typology, intertextuality, and traffic in entrepreneurial narrative. The Journal of Business Communication. Vol. 39 (1): 36-54. One of the rare storytelling studies to use intertextuality.

Rosile, Grace Ann & David M. Boje (2002). Restorying and postmodern organization theatre: Consultation in the storytelling organization. Chapter 15, pp. 271-290 in Ronald R. Sims (Ed.) Changing the Way We Manage Change. Wesport, CONN/London: Quorum Books. Click here for pre-publication pdf

Spicochi, R. & K. L. Tyran (2002). A tale of two leaders” Exploring the role of leader storytelling and follower sensemaking in transformational change. An Organizational Development and Change (ODC) paper presented to Special Interest Topics session # 1022 “Storytelling and Narrative” at Denver meeting of Academy of Management on Wednesday August 14 2002. Interesting piece because goes against the grain of appreicaitve inquiry consutling and uses some criticality; slso looks at antenarrative (Boje, 2001)

Starkey, K.; Crane, A. 2003. Toward green narrative: management and the evolutionary epic. Academy of Management Review, 28, (2): 220-243. Nice piece critical storytelling work, that looks at McD's strategic alliances and how stories of same are used to legitimate its corporate practices.

Stein, G. 1935. Narration: four lectures. Introduction by Thornton Wilder. Chicago, Il: University of Chicago Press. Wow! Lecture 3 is amazing, really opens horizons in story practice and theory that have yet to be explored, such as how storytelling imposes burdens on the listenerer, how the listener is telling themselves a story different from what the teller is telling. Idea as well the the ways of telling by an organization are very telling. “There are many ways to tell what we tell” (Stein, 340)

Tsoukas, H., M. J. Hatch 2001. 'Complex Thinking, Complex Practice: The case for a narrative approach to organizational complexity'. Human Relations 54: 979-1013.

Vickers, M. H. 2002. Illness, work and organization: Postmodernism and antenarratives for the reinstatement of voice. Working paper, Unviersity of Western Sydney. Accepted for publication at Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organizational Science. Explores antenarrative (Boje, 2001). Vickers (2002: 2-3), for example, looks at how “postmodern antenarratives encourage the possibility that there may be no story to tell, only fragments that may never come together coherently. She combines Heideggerian phenomenology with an antenarrative exploration of multi-voiced ways of telling stories, of putting fragments together. Using in-depth interviews of people whose lives were shattered by chronic illness and suffering, Vickers’ study presents what does not fit into coherence narratives.

White, M.. & Epston, D. (1990). Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends. NY/London: W.W. Norton & Company. This is a major text on the use of story in therapy and has been applied to story consulting in organizations. See restorying

More Story Consulting Reference lists

1.Terence Gargiulo's http://www.makingstories.net/Articles_page.htm#bibliography

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