Born on: March 15, 1998


TO REFERENCE THIS WEB SITE: Boje, D. M. (2001). "Academics Studying Athletic Apparel Industry: Annotated Bibliography" - of ACADEMICS STUDYING NIKE, REEBOK, ADIDAS, CAMPUS & ATHLETIC APPAREL INDUSTRY.

INDEX TO PAGE (Press STOP LADY to return).

Find Author in Page Enter last or first name [Keep pressing enter to search for NEXT one] (if they are not here let me know

SEE SPECIAL ISSUE ON Corporate Predators and Nike, in (2001) Tamara Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. AND Vol 1 Issue 2.


Most comprehensive Nike Academic work on the web. BELOW ARE over 103 academic journal articles, book chapters, conference proceedings, film studies, and presentations that take issue with 4 studies that Nike (and Adidas, Reebok & New Balance) claim as defensive posturing against all efforts to create living wage, independent academic research, and full disclosure of all factory locations. You might count Wokutch (2001a, b) as the fifth (see Boje, 2001m).

The SCOREBOARD reads 102 to 4, you decide:

Amos Tuck (1997) Dartmouth University wage studies of Vietnam and Indonesia (press here for copy that was put on web after Nike dropped the study from sight between 1999 and 2001). Note: This study was removed from Nike's and Dartmouth's web sites following the severe criticisms of its Research Methodology. Nike restored the study, after much critique to demonstrate it had spent money on University research (in fulfillment of Phil Knight's 1998 promises). Academics Studying Nike and associates have restored those pages. Most devastating is the excuse that researchers would not survey Nike workers, since according to Nike, their views would be "biased!" Also Nike press releases and conference calls occurred just before the 1997 Annual Boycott Nike day. Finally, the two professors on the project are the same ones who provide Disney with its wage studies in Haiti -- See Mihaly, Gene & Massey, Joseph (1997) "DARTMOUTH PROFESSORS SPEAK ON COST OF LIVING STUDY" below.

Arsenault, Darin J. & Tamer Fawzy (2001). "Just Buy It: Nike Advertising Aimed at Glamour Readers: A Critical Feminist Analysis." SPECIAL ISSUE ON Corporate Predators and Nike, Tamara Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. Vol 1 Issue 2 pp. 63-76.

Athreya, B (AAFLI), (1995). Report to Asian American Free Labor Institute on the Conditions in Factories Making Nike Sports Shoes, unpublished, June. (Research done in preparation for doctoral dissertation.)

Ballinger, Jeff and Olsson, Claes (Eds) (1997) Behind the Swoosh: The Struggle of Indonesians Making Nike Shoes. Sweden: Global Publications Foundations and International Coalition for Development Action ISBN 91-973157-0-2 

Ballinger, Jeff (2000) "How the Military Enforces Global Capitalism: Nike’s Armies" July-August issue of Non-Violent Activist (press here) for article - "The link between globalization and militarism was all but ignored in the recent debate over China trade. China’s Peoples Liberation Army benefits a great deal from increasing trade with the United States, and the dynamic growth of Asia’s “new Tigers” owes much to the military-dominated internal security systems that protect foreign investors from independent trade unions. Out of the hundreds of “sweatshop” stories published in the past several years, only a mere handful even mention the tacit partnership between foreign investors—many of them shoe and apparel companies based in Taiwan or South Korea—and corrupt militaries in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and elsewhere..." "Cicih Sukaesih, for example, reported that one soldier put a revolver on the table during questioning of her friend. She and all the other independent union activists were fired" (photo). 

Ballinger, Jeffrey (2001a).  Taking on the Global Market Machine: Time to Gear for a Revolution in Worker Rights. Paper delivered to Center on Rights Development, Spring Symposium Conflict and Congruence: Human Rights and Development in Theory and Practice Graduate School of International Studies, University of Denver this is a practical demonstration of the relation of postmodern culture and economic democracy and social justice, covering the history of U.S. policy becoming "commercial" policy, rich analyses of Indonesia's struggle with transnational corporate power.

Ballinger, Jeffery (2001b) Once Again, Nike`s Voice Looms Larger Than That of Its Workers. (August Behind The Label Op Ed piece).

Banfe, Peter L., Michele A. Govekar, Nicholas S. Miceli and Dexter R. Woods, Jr. (2001). "Antecedents and Determinants of Sweatshop Establishments: If the Shoe Fits…" SPECIAL ISSUE ON Corporate Predators and Nike, Tamara Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. Vol 1 Issue 2 pp. 77-92.

Barry, David (1999). (Press here) presentation to the Discourse and Language Conference at Ohio State University. Barry did an analysis of Boje's  1998  "Nike, Greek goddess of victory or cruelty?: Women's stories of Asian factory life" article and has his own unique perspective on Nike.

Barry, David, Boje, David M. Landrum, Nancy, Jeanne Logsdon & Wood, Donna, Oakes, Leslie, Wells, Don & Greenberg, Josh and Tucker, Amanda (2000) "Nike and Time" an all Academy of Management Showcase symposium at the August Toronto meeting. Retrieved August 29th from the World Wide Web:

Basinger, Julianne. (2000). "Economists Take College Presidents to Task for Joining Anti-Sweatshop Groups", in The Chronicle of Higher Education, Vol. 47, No. 5, p.A39. September 29, 2000. (DBW PER LB2300.C48).

Bendell, Jem (2001) Nike and Global Labour Practices by David F. Murphy and David Mathew Talking for Change? Reflections on Effective Stakeholder Dialogue. To download these publications in pdf format (press here). 

Bigelow, W. (1998). The human lives behind the labels: The global sweatshop, Nike, and the race to the bottom. In W. Ayres, J. Hunt, & T. Quinn (Eds.), Teaching for social justice: A Democracy and Education reader (pp. 21-38). New York: Teachers College Press 

Boje List of Nike Research and Theory Pieces (see below).

Boje, D. M. (2001a). Narrative Methods for Organizational and Communication Research. London: Sage. New Book that contains several analyses on Nike and Athletic Apparel narratives, and the concept of "antenarrative." 

Sage or See listing for U.S. soft cover.

Boje, D. M. (2001b). Athletic Apparel Industry is Tamara-land. Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. Vol 1 (2), pp. 6-19.

Boje, D. M. (2001c). "Athletic Apparel Industry Tamara" February 23.Working paper for the TAMARA special Issue Vol 1 (2).

Boje, D. M. (2001d) Tamara Manifesto. Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. Vol. 1 (1): pp. 15-24.  Background on Tamara construct and its relation to Nike and Athletic Apparel Industry.

Boje, D. M. (2001e). Carnivalesque Resistance to Global Spectacle: A critical postmodern theory of public administration. Administrative Theory and Praxis, special issue on Radical Organization Theory. Vol. 23 (3) September pp. 431-458.

Boje, D. M. (2001f). "Where are the Secret Factories Located? This is a compilation of (secret) factory locations and and related exposé stories on continued Athletic Apparel Industry exploitation of labor and ecology.

Boje, D. M. (2001g). Antenarrating, Tamara, and Nike Storytelling. Paper prepared for presentation at “Storytelling Conference” at the School of Management; Imperial College, 53 Prince’s Gate, Exhibition Road, London, July 9th, 2001.

Boje, D. M. (2001h) "Editorial: Athletic Apparel Industry is Tamara-land." SPECIAL ISSUE ON Corporate Predators and Nike, Tamara Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. Vol 1 Issue 2 pp 6-19.

Boje, D. M. (2001i) "Spin, Spin, Spin: Responsorial." SPECIAL ISSUE ON Corporate Predators and Nike, Tamara Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. Vol 1 Issue 2 pp. 97-101.

-->Boje, D. M. (2001j) "Comparison of the Urban Community Mission (UCM) Survey Report December 1999 to the Global Alliance, Center for Societal Development Studies (CSDS) 2000 study"

Boje, D. M. (2001k) "Nike, Nietzschean Superman  and the Sweatshop Life for Superwomen." January 1, 2001 paper for presentation to the  International Relations Research Association. January 5-7, 2000. IRRA sessions are in Fairmont Hotel in New Orleans. Session S19 "The Anti-Sweatshop Movement and Corporate Codes of Conduct" session is Friday January 5th. 10:15 a.m. - 12:15p.m.

Boje, D. M. (2001l) "Global Theatrics of Capitalism." Contains examples of culture jamming art, missing absent referent photos, and analysis of relation between Athletic Apparel Industry spectacle of disinformation, and carnivalesque acts of street theater resistance. Appendix of 10 College of Business theatrics training experiential exercises.

Boje, D. M. (2001m) "The Sexual Politics of Sneakers: 'Common Ground' and Absent-Referent Stories in the Nike Debate." Organization and Environment. vol. 14 (3): 356-363. Pre publication version at This is a response to Wokutsh (2001a), who also writes a response to my response (Wokutus, 2001b).

Boje, D. M. (2001n). Flight of Antenarrative in Phenomenal Complexity Theory, Tamara, Storytelling Organization Theory. September 24 & 25, 2001 invited Complexity Theory conference presentation in La Hague, Netherlands for Professorship of Hugo Letiche. Paper examines the the transition form pre-story to full blown urban legend of there antenarratives. First, the Kathie Lee Gifford story composed by  in 1996 that spawned the AI, which led to the FLA and WRC. Second, the Kukdong story in 2001, which began with a January 10th letter by Nike/Reebok worker,  Josefina Hernandez Ponce. And third, the January 17th, 2001 Jonah Peretti "Design a Nike Shoe" stitched with the word "Sweatshop" email, that everyone in the world got a copy of, and it grew to urban legend status. All three antenarratives have been significant in linking the word "sweatshop" to corporations such as Wal-Mart, Nike, and Reebok. Stories are powerful, and dangerous.

Boje, D. M. (2000a). Nike is Out of Time - Showcase Symposium for Academy of Management Meetings - August, 2000 in Toronto.

Boje, D. M. (2000b). "Phenomenal Complexity Theory and Change at Nike: Response to Letiche." This was a response, invited by the guest editor and accepted for publication in Journal of Organizational Change Management special issue on Complexity Theory. But will instead be headed for the journal, Emergence, which is published in the US. 

Boje, D. M. (2000c). "Nike Corporate Writing of Academic, Business, and Cultural Practices." Management Communication Quarterly, "Essays for the Popular Management Forum," Volume 14, Number 3.

Boje, D. M. (2000d) "Faciality of Nike Corporation." Working Paper. September 16th. 

Boje, D. M. (2000e) "Nike Corporation, Nike Women and Narrative Moral Dilemmas." December 29, 2000. 

Boje, D. M. (1999a). Is Nike Roadrunner or Wile E. Coyote? A Postmodern Organization Analysis of Double Logic, Journal of Business & Entrepreneurship. Special Issue (March, Vol. II) 77-109. This is an analysis of the relationship between Nike activists and Nike. This is a pre publication draft.

Boje, D. M. (1999b). TD Green Wash Accounting - Ernst and Young Environmental Audit Report of Nike and other Horror Stories.

Boje, D. M. (1998a). Amos Tuck's Post-Sweat Nike Spin Pp 618-623. In Business Research Yearbook: Global Business Perspectives, Vol. V. Biberman, J. & Alkafarji, A (Eds.). This is a reanalysis of Amos Tuck Business Schools' Wage Study statistics. Nike uses the Tuck study to justify not paying a living wage.

Boje, D. M. (1998b). Wile Coyote Meets the Road Runner Paper presentation to the Sun Break Conference, Chaos and Complexity, chaired by Janice Black, Las Cruces, NM, February at New Mexico State University.

Boje, D. M. (1998c). What Postmodern Philosophers Have to Contribute to Knowledge Researchers Paper presented to INFORMS (Institute for Operations Research and Management Sciences) conference, Seattle, WA, October 1998.

Boje, D. M. (1998d). A Wicked Introduction to the Unbroken Circle Conference: International Business & Ecology Boje, D. M. 1998. P. v-xiii. In International Business and Ecology Research Yearbook.

Boje, D. M. (1998e). How Critical Theory and Critical Pedagogy can Unmask Nike's Labor Practices presented to the Critical Theory pre-conference of the Academy of Management meetings, San Diego, CA, August 8.

  • Labor Process Theory Chart (1997) This is a chart based upon Braverman's (1973) book, Labor and Monopoly Capital (It is not directly related to Nike).

Boje, D. M. (1998f). Nike, Greek Goddess of Victory or Cruelty? Women's Stories of Asian Factory Life Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 11(6): 461-480. There is an interesting story behind this one. 

Boje, D. M. (1998g). The Swoosh Goddess is a Vampire: Nike's Environmental Accounting Storytelling Pp. 23-32. In International Business and Ecology Research Yearbook. IABD Publication.

Boje, D. M. and 45 Academic Scholars (2000) "Global Manufacturing and Taylorism Practices of Nike Corporation and its Subcontractors" Drafted September 16, 2000 and submitted to Nike Corporation to obtain permission to enter samples of factories (no money is requested). - At suggestion of Amada Tucker of Nike Inc., the study was expanded to include Reebok, Adidas, & New Balance, for comparative study reasons - See Revised 2001 version - Next

Boje, D. M., Grace Ann Rosile & J. Dámaso Miguel Alcantara Carrillo (2001a) The Kuk Dong Story: When the Fox Guards the Hen House

Boje, D. M. & 50 Academics from Around the World (2001b). Global Manufacturing and Taylorism Practices of Athletic Apparel Corporations and Their Subcontractors ; Also a presentation at the 2001 EGOS (European Group on Organization Studies) conference and the
2001 Academy of Management pre-conference - See Next Entry.

Boje, D. M., Dominique Besson, Slim Haddadj, & Rupe Chisholm (2001c) Global Manufacturing and Taylorism
Practices of Nike Corporation and its Subcontractors: Ancient (Modern) Times within (Post) Modern
? EGOS (European Group on Organization Studies) conference, Lyon, France (July, 2001).

Boje, D. M. & 50 Academics from Around the World (2001d). Professional Development Workshop by Academics Studying Athletic and Campus Apparel. At Academy of Management in Washington D.C. - , August 4, (Saturday) 2001 in Washington D.C.

Bullert, Bette Jean. (2000). The Entrepreneur and the Sweatshop: Nike, Kathie Lee Gifford, and the Anti-Sweatshop Movement. October 3, 2000  Bullert is a communication scholar, a documentary film maker and an oral historian. She holds a Ph..D. in Communications from the University of Washington, and has taught communication and video production as an Assistant Professor at American University in Washington, D.C., and at Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Penn. Dr. Bullert also holds a M. Litt. degree in politics from Oxford University. Her film work focuses on Kathie Lee Gifford, Nike, and the history of the anti-sweatshop initiative in the U.S.


Carty, Victoria (2001) "The Internet and Grassroots Politics: Nike, the Athletic Apparel Industry and the Anti-sweatshop Campaign" SPECIAL ISSUE ON Corporate Predators and Nike, Tamara Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. Vol 1 Issue 2 pp.34-47.

Carty, Victoria (July) 1999 "Emerging Post-Industrial, Postmodern Trends and the Implications for Social Change: A Case-Study of Nike Corporation. Unpublished Dissertation, Sociology Department, The University of New Mexico. This study extends Korzeniewicz's (1992, 1994) work (see below) into Global Commodity Networks. Carty shows the interconnection between Nike's subcontract relationships as an aspect of post-industrial (post-Fordism) with its flexible production & flexible specialization AND strategies by Nike to control and influence postmodern culture. While most studies have focused upon subcontracts to Asian factories, Carty traces the distribution contracting such as with Footlocker (and direct distribution through NikeTown), as well as the sports star and university contracts and license agreements.  In short, Nike links post-industrial networking to both producers and distributors to bids to be the icon of postmodern culture. "One of its most successful global ads, created by Weiden & Kennedy and entitles 'The Wall,' was shown in numerous countries and demonstrates Nike's initiative to articulate the same [rebel] personality [as seen in the U.S.] worldwide" (p. 236).  Carty provides an excellent review of Nike's links to postmodern theory and postmodern culture (chapters 1 and 7), as well as to post-industrial trends (chapters 3, 4 and 5). Chapters 6 and 7 give a stinging critique of Nike domestic and international controversies as well as a review of Nike sponsored studies such as the Andrew Young report and the Dartmouth study.  For example, with regards to the Dartmouth study by  Gene Mihaly and Joseph Massey (1997), "The fact that the report was so seriously flawed in both methodology and analysis of the data may be the reason that Nike did not release the actual report until months" after its October 16, 1997 conference call to the press. As noted on the Academics Studying Nike site, the report, once released on the web (at Nike and Dartmouth) was so severely challenged, it was quickly removed from the web by these institutions. "The major shortcomings of the study were: 1) because the researchers assumed that interviewing workers about how much they were bieing paid would bias the study, only management was interviewed; 2) instead of getting information from workers' pay stubs, they got their information from the factories' managers; 3) interviews with workers regarding other matters took place on factory premises, with those interviewed selected by management, and in a group setting which did not provide anonymity; and 4) while the report does show, by the collection of the researchers' own data (cited in the appendices), that workers are in fact paid far below the minimum wage, there is not mention of this in the main report" (p. 323). I (Boje) did obtain and reanalyze the data in the appendices and found the Dartmouth study grossly overstates the savings workers are able to obtain.  See Boje, D. M. 1998a Amos Tuck's Post-Sweat Nike SpinThis dissertation is a must read for anyone doing serious academic work on Nike. 

Carty, Victoria (1997)  "A Case-study of Ideologies, Global Production and Consumption in the Postmodern Era." In Gender Work and Organization. Vol. 4, No 4. Pp. 189-201. October 1997.

Carty, Victoria (1994) "Postindustrial, Postmodern Trends in the Global Economy: A  Case-study of Nike and the Athletic Footwear Industry." In The  Journal of the Southwest Symposium. Pp. 122-126. April 1994.

Carty, Victoria and Miguel Korzeniewicz (forthcoming) "From American Icon to Global Icon: Issues of Cultural Change and Consumer Trends in Nike's Worldwide Marketing and Advertising." . In Nike Nation: Technologies of an American Sign. Edited by David L. Andrews & Cheryl L. Cole. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press. Forthcoming.

Carty, Victoria (1994) "Structuration, Homogenization, and the Increasing Role of Culture in Global Industries: A Case-study of the Athletic Footwear Industry." In the Working Paper Series in the Social Sciences. Vol. 1, No 2.  Pp. 28-43. Fall 1994.

Chan, Anita (1996) "Boot Camp At The Shoe Factory, Where Taiwanese Bosses Drill Chinese Workers to Make Sneakers for American Joggers", Washington Post, Outlook, November 3. p. C01, Dongguan City, China. (press here) or (press here).  Dr. Anita Chan, Contemporary China Centre, Australian National University (expert on working conditions in shoe factories in China).  She describes how Korean managed factories (not specifically Nike) can be harsh and unscrupulous in their treatment of worker: "In one case a woman worker was locked inside a dog cage with a large dog and placed on public display in the factory compound."

Chan, Anita (1998) "Nike and its Satanettes." Open letter  - This is a reply to Phil Knight's speech to the National Press Club in Washington D.C. (press here).

  • (press here) for CLR newsletter report on the speech.

Chen Meei-shia and Anita Chan, (1999) "Market Economics in Command: Footwear Workers' Health in Jeopard", International Journal of Health Services, 1999, 29 (4): 793-811.

Cole, Cheryl L. (1996) "American Jordan: P.L.A.Y., consensus and Punishment." Sociology of Sport Journal, 13(4): 366-397.

Cole, Cheryl L. (1997) "P.L.A.Y., Nike, and Michael Jordan: National Fantasy and the Racialization of Crime and Punishment." Center for Cultural Values and Ethics. department of Kinesiology, Women's Studies Program, Unit for Criticism and Interpretive Theory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Louise Freer hall, 906 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (press here) for web paper.

Cole, Cheryl L. and Amy Hribar (1995) "Celebrity Feminism: Nike Style (Post-Fordism, Transcendence, and Consumer Power)." Sociology of Sport Journal, 12 (4).

Connor, Tim (2002). WE ARE NOT MACHINES. Despite some small steps forward, poverty and fear still dominate the lives of Nike and Adidas workers in Indonesia. March.

"Factory managers abuse and harass us because they think it will increase our productivity. They don't understand that people work better when they are treated in a way that respects their needs. You
should do research into that. Maybe then they will stop treating us like machines. All you need to do is turn on a machine and it works automatically. Humans cannot work like that. We are not machines." 

Translation of comments by Nike worker. Focus group discussion, 21 January 2002.

Connor, Tim (2001). "Still Waiting for Nike to Do It," Nike's Labor Practices in the Three Years Since CEO Phil Knight's Speech to the National Press Club - Released May 2001, Published by Global Exchange

Connor, T., (in press) "Re-routing the race to the bottom? Transnational Corporations, labor practice codes of conduct and workers' right to organise - the case of Nike Inc." in Hernandez-Truyol(ed.) (in press), Moral Imperialism: A Critical Anthology, NYU Press, New York.

Connor, T. (2000). Like Cutting Bamboo, Nike and the right of Indonesian Workers to Freedom of Association, Community Aid Abroad-Oxfam Australia Report. Available on the web at 

Connor, T. (1998). "Motivations and Exclusions? The White House's Apparel Industry Partnership Code and the Nike Factory Worker." Institute of Australian Geographers 1999 Conference, July, Freemantle, Australia

Connor, T. (1999). "Making your dog fat so she can bite you back? Will labour
practice codes of conduct give greater powers to workers in China?"
at "Geography at the Millenium" Institute of Australian Geographers 1999 Conference, 27 September to 1 October, Sydney, Australia

Connor, T. (1999). "Where's the umpire? The Code of Labour Practice for Goods Licensed to carry the logos of the Sydney Olympics and Paralympics" in Taylor, T.(ed.) How You Play the Game, Papers from the First International Conference on Sport and Human Rights, 1-3 September 1999, Sydney Australia, University of Technology, Sydney, Faculty of Business Publications, pp. 176-82

Connor, T. and Atkinson J., (1996). Sweating for Nike A Report on Labour conditions in the sport shoe industry, Community Aid Abroad Briefing Paper, No. 16 - November.  Available on the web at

DeWinter, Rebecca (2001). The anti-sweatshop movement: Constructing corporate moral agency in the global apparel industry.  Ethics & International Affairs  Volume: 15 Issue:  2, Page: 99-116. 

Donaghu, Michael & Barff, Richard (1990). "Nike Just Did it: International Subcontracting and Flexibility in Athletic Footwear Production." Regional Studies Vol. 24(6): 537-52. 

Frenkel, Stephen J. (2001). Globalization, athletic footwear commodity chains and employment relations in China. Organization Studies. Volume: 22, Issue:  4: 531-562.

Gereffi, Gary & Korzeniewicz, Miguel (1990). "Commodity Chains and Footwear Exports in the Semiperiphery." In Semiperpheral sTates in the Wrold Economy, editid by Willimam G. Martin pp. 45-68. Westport, CT: Greewood Press.

Goldman, R. and Papson, S. (1998) New Culture: The Sign of the Swoosh. London: Sage Publications. See review below.

Hackenberg, Robert A (2000) "Advancing applied anthropology: Joe Hill in cyberspace: Steps toward creating 'one big union'"  Human Organization. Fall, Volume:  59 (3):  365-369

Hancock, P (1996), Report on Fentay and Kutje factories in Banjaran, Indonesia, unpublished, October. (Research done on Nike in preparation for doctoral dissertation.) (press here) for excerpts of Hancock's research.

  • Sweating for Nike A Report on Labour conditions in the sport shoe industry Community Aid Abroad Briefing Paper, No. 16 - November, 1996 Tim Connor and Jeff Atkinson
  • "Walking Ghosts Who Work in Satan's factory." 4 April, 1997 (press here) Australian academic's new report reveals "worst conditions yet" in Nike contractor's Indonesian factory.
  • "Nike's Satanic Factories in West Java," describes a Nike factory as "a very large high-security prison." as cited in "Anti-Nike Activists Just Do It  By Suganthi Singrayar, April 15, 1997, Tuesday Inter Press News Service (press here).

Hancock, Peter (1997) "Women Workers in Nike Factories in West Java"  Peter Hancock spent eight months in a remote area of Indonesia winning the trust of Nike workers and carefully recording their experiences (press here).  Australian academic Peter Hancock's research is on the Feng Tay and Kutje factories in Banjaran in Indonesia (which produce Nikes) (press here).

Hancock, Peter (1997) "Walking Ghosts Who Work in Satan's factory." 4 April, 1997 (press here) Australian academic's new report reveals "worst conditions yet" in Nike contractor's Indonesian factory.

Hancock, P (2000) "The lived experiences of female factory workers in rural West Java" in Labour and Management in Development Journal. Volume 1 Number 1. Australian National University. Pp 1-18.

Harvard Business School (1985) "Nike in China." HBS Case No. 9-386-065. Cambridge: Harvard Business School.

Harvard Business School (1987) "Nike in China: Teaching Note" HBS Case No. 5-388-010. Cambridge: Harvard Business School.

Kahle, Lynn R., Boush, David M. & Phelps, Mark (2000). "Good Morning, Vietnam: An Ethical Analysis of Nike Activities in Southeast Asia. Sport Marketing Quarterly. Vol. 9 (1): 43- 52. Nike has a web PDF version of the study on its Nike Inc. web site.  (See full critique at Boje, D. M. 2000b "Phenomenal Complexity Theory and Change at Nike: Response to Letiche"). The Kahle et al (2000) study was recommended to the audience of the August, 2000 meeting of the Academy of Management by Amanda Tucker (of Nike's Labor Practices Department) as an example of good academic research. It is now recommended by Nike, along with several quite "interesting" studies. My read is this is academic tourism combined with a Nike-packaged factory tour. These are marketing professors who defend Nike in Vietnam against all criticism using an ethical analysis and an on-site inspection. "Some criticisms of Nike have been unfair but have benefited Asian workers and have promoted the principle that firms are responsible for the actions of their subcontractors" (p. 43). From a research methods viewpoint, what do they base this conclusion on?  I read the article and could not find a methodology. They just visited the Chanshin factory in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. They say this factory was selected to fit their "travel schedule" (p. 44). They point out "Nike did not dictate which factory we visited" (p. 44). Undisclosed sources told them that variability among factories is very small so this factory was taken as representative. Very interesting finding, given the reports coming out of Vietnam.  They inspected the physical environment of the factory on their pre-announced walking tour. Their method is no different from the study of Andrew Young.   They observed workers, and describe a "modal employee: as "a young, rural woman." There are no sampling statistics, just corporate one. Since no interview data with "several workers" they spoke to is provided ( see p. 46), we can only assume that the statistics and conclusions of the study are provided by Nike officials and subcontract managers (e.g. wages are $35 per month). They conclude" Overall, we did not see anything that struck us as out of the ordinary for a manufacturing facility" (p. 46). They describe ethics as "subjective: and assert that they have no reason to doubt any of Nike's claims.  They concluded that Nike has behaved ethically (p. 48) and the controversy is explained as a conflict between the expectations of Nike stakeholders (who want to maximize shareholder value) and those who want to hold Nike to a standard in excess of the law.  I would welcome any opportunity to debate these academics. To me, this article fails each of the major tests of reliability and validity listed above (See full critique at Boje, D. M. 2000b "Phenomenal Complexity Theory and Change at Nike: Response to Letiche"). 

Keady, James W. (1998) "Nike and Catholic Social Teaching: A Challenge to the Christian Mission at St. John's University." Unpublished paper. For web version (press here).

Klein, Naomi  (1999) No Logo : Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies  Picador (St. Martin's Press) USA (see book review).

Knight, Graham & Josh Greenberg (2000). " Protest and Promotionalism: Nike PR and the Labor Rights Campaign." Academy of Management All Academy Showcase Symposium on "Time and Nike," David Boje and Nancy Landrum (co-chairs), August 9th, Session #170. 

Korzeniewicz, Miguel (1994) "Commodity Chains and Marketing Strategies: Nike and the Global Athletic Footwear Industry." pp. 247-265 in Gary Gareffi and Miguel Korzeniewicz (Eds.) Commodity Chains and global Capitalism. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Press. Summary - Global Commodity Chains (GCC) of Nike are studied with a look at the role played by design, distribution, and marketing of Nike sneakers. Nike shifts its commodity within the chain toward greater control over more value-added service activities (p. 248). In 1992, (and since) 99% of Nike sneakers were made in Asia. One of the more critical assertions by Korzeniewicz: "The relationship between the athletic footwear industry and drug money has become increasingly evident by the alarming rate of robberies and killings over expensive sports shoes. Some store owners claim that Nike is not only aware that drug money contributes heavily to its sales, but that Nike representatives adamantly encourage distributors in the inner cities to specifically target and cater to this market" (p. 258; also see Telander, Rick 1990 "Senseless," Sports Illustrated 72 May 14th p. 36; See Cole's work above).  Korzeniewicz (like Carty above) is making a link between postmodern culture and postindustrial GCC. The postindustrial aspects include flexible specialization, flexible production (or what is called post-Fordist methods), but this is combined with a strategy of post-Fordist distribution contracting and direct control along with increased postmodern consumption control (p. 259-261). For example Nike ads focusing on the Beatles' song "revolution" and John Lennon's song "Instant Karma" try to situate Nike products in postmodern culture (p. 258). In addition Nike stepped up its subcontracting of apparel manufacturing and licensing to universities (See, Carty, 1999).  In short postmodern "advertising [appeal is] a crucial element in the athletic footwear global commodity chain... In a sense, Nike represents an archetype of a firm selling to emerging postmodern consumer markets that rest on segmented, specialized, and dynamic features" (p. 258-259). Korzeniewicz concludes that Kike has shifted is production to more peripheral (nations) since May of 1988 when for example it began to move its then 68% of its S. Korea production to other parts of Asia (China, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam).  "In the first period, between 1962 and 1975, Nike Corporation emphasized control over the import and distribution nodes of its commodity change. Between 1976 and 1984, Nike Corporation enhanced its relative competitive position by extending control to marketing, and by redesigning its subcontracting strategy to take advantage of new opportunities in Southeast Asia (in South Korea and Taiwan initially, later in China, Thailand, and Indonesia). Finally beginning in the mid-1980s, Nike Corporation successfully extended control to product design and advertising, further upgrading the firm's organization structure" (p. 261). In sum, Nike operates a three-tier Global Commodity Chain (core, semi-periphery, and periphery).  Core production in S. Korean and Taiwan; semi-peripheral in Indonesia and Thailand, and peripheral production in China and Vietnam. 

Landrum, Nancy Ellen (2001). "Environmental and Social Responsibility Rhetoric of Nike and Reebok" SPECIAL ISSUE ON Corporate Predators and Nike, Tamara Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science. Vol 1 Issue 2 pp. 48-62.

Landrum, Nancy Ellen - (2000a) "A quantitative and Qualitative Examination of the Dynamics of Nike and Reebok Storytelling as Strategy." Dissertation, New Mexico State University, Management Department.

Landrum, Nancy Ellen - ( 2000b) "Environmental Rhetoric of Nike." Academy of Management All Academy Showcase Symposium on "Time and Nike," David Boje and Nancy Landrum (co-chairs), August 9th, Session #170.

Landrum, N. and Boje, D. (in press). "Nike Kairos: Strategies Just in Time." In U. Haley & F. Richter (Eds.), Asian Post-Crises Management: Corporate and Governmental Strategies for Sustainable Competitive Advantage. London: MacMillan Press.

Landrum, N. and Boje, D. (2000). "An Ethnostatistical Analysis of Nike's Tuck Report." In Biberman, J. & Alkhafaji, A. (Eds.) Business Research Yearbook: Global Business Perspectives, Vol. VII, International Academy of Business Disciplines, pp. 614-618. Saline, MI: McNaughton & Gunn Inc.

Landrum Nancy E. and David M. Boje (2001) Kairos: Strategies just in time in the Asian athletic footwear industryPre-publication Draft of Chapter 6, To appear in Book titled: Asian Post-crisis Management Edited by Usha Haley, expected publication date 2001.

Landrum, N., Boje, D., and Daniel, D. (2000) "An Empirical and Rhetorical Analysis of Nike's Vietnamese Wage Study." Working Paper.

LaFeber, Walter (1999) Michael Jordan and the New Global Capitalism (1999) W. W. Norton & Company (see book review).

Lim, Linda (2000). Memo: My Factory Visits in Southeast Asia and UM Code and Monitoring (dated September 6, 2001). Linda Lim, associate professor of Business Administration at the University of Michigan. Professor Lim visited two Nike factories: (shoe factory) in Vietnam, and apparel  (factory) in Indonesia.. Press here for PDF copy from Nike's Corporate web site.  The study supports Nike claims that it pays "living wages" to its workers in Asia. She reports, "the wages in the factories I visited are at or above the per capita income level: (p. 2).  She goes on to conclude, "These facts suggest that these factories at least (and others like them) are likely to meet any reasonable living wage test g.g. workers are subsisting at or above the average for an individual in their respective countries" (p. 3).

Locke, R. M. (2006). Promise and Perils of Globalization: The Case of Nike. MIT case, Locke also has a streaming video of a presentation by Nike’s representative, Hannah Jones.  My colleague Jeff Ballinger has begun transcribing it. Nike’s representative, is showing her PowerPoint slides, when her narration becomes an example of the self-reflexive manner of story. She begins to self-reflect why a decade of activism has not changed sweatshop conditions in overseas apparel factories:

‘There's no point in Nike having 96 monitors on a factory floor day in and day out monitoring overtime, if overtime is being caused way up the supply chain.’ So Nike is scrutinizing its own behavior as a buyer. We must ‘incentivize suppliers to become part of business decision-making,’ says Nike's Hannah Jones (starting at 20:34).

Workers Right Consortium (WRC, is a national activist association) representative Scott Nova, replies, “The pressure on foreign suppliers hasn't succeeded, because factory managers conclude correctly that if the brands were truly serious about improved working conditions, they would pay enough to make it possible for those conditions to be achieved." Instead, factories compete to pick up cheap contracts, pressure their workers to toil for pennies, and use "fakery and deception when customers send auditors to inspect labor conditions."’

Prof Locke’s streaming video at MIT of Nike Rep Hannah Jones

Jeff Ballinger 2006 Jan 27 email message

Locke, Richard et al (2007) study of Nike Compliance strategies in 2 Mexican factories

Here is an excerpt from Richard Locke et al's study:

"Findings help Nike, Inc. to evolve its compliance strategy
Cambridge, Mass. — Global brands are more likely to influence the improvement of working conditions in their suppliers' factories in developing countries by providing technical assistance to suppliers and empowering employees on shop floors. New research by an MIT Sloan School of Management professor found this approach to be more effective than monitoring codes of conduct, which is currently the leading way that global brands and labor rights organizations address poor working conditions.

Richard Locke, the Alvin J. Siteman Professor of Entrepreneurship at MIT Sloan, and his former student Monica Romis, compared working conditions in two Mexican garment factories that supply athletic footwear and apparel giant Nike, Inc. Although they both passed compliance with Nike's code of conduct, only one factory earned high scores in overall employee satisfaction with workplace conditions.

The key difference, according to Locke, is that the factory with the higher satisfaction scores implemented ‘lean manufacturing processes’ — a term referring to manufacturing methods based on maximizing value and minimizing waste in the manufacturing process — that resulted in employees having greater autonomy and power to make day-to-day decisions on the shop floor." Read More

For a copy of “Beyond Corporate Codes of Conduct: Work Organization and Labor Standards in Two Mexican Garment Factories,” please contact the MIT Sloan Office of Media Relations:

Logsdon, Jeanne  & Donna Wood (2000) "Sweatshops and Business Citizenship." Academy of Management All Academy Showcase Symposium on "Time and Nike," David Boje and Nancy Landrum (co-chairs), August 9th, Session #170.

Macintosh, Norman, Teri Shearer, Daniel Thornton & Michael Welker (1997)  "A Baudrillardian Perspective on Accounting." Queen's University School of Business Research Program  Working Paper 97-06 Kingston, Ontario, K7L3N6. Paper presented to the September 1997 conference, "Accounting, time and Space" sponsored by the Accounting, Organizations and Society and the Copenhagen Business School.  Article uses Nike as an example of selling stories of Michael Jordan star power to consumers while masking the "sub-human, slave-like factory conditions, [workers] paid a pittance, while Jordan earns more from Nike in a year than all of Nike's factory workers" (p. 6).

Mihaly, Gene & Massey, Joseph (1997)
NIKE, Inc.: Survey of Vietnamese and Indonesian Domestic Expenditure Levels. (pdf format, 249kb). The Amos Tuck School – November 3, 1997 "DARTMOUTH PROFESSORS SPEAK ON COST OF LIVING STUDY"
  Nike, after two years of critique has reinstalled the missing from web-space study to the Nike web site (as of July, 2001). Transcript of conference call with two Dartmouth Amos Tuck School of Business professors (Mihaly, who went to Indonesia supervising an MBA study group and Massey who went to Vietnam supervising an MBA study group) moderated by Dusty Kidd and Vada Manager of Nike, Labor Practices Department. Reporters in conference call include Naomi Klein from Toronto Star, Bruce Ramsey with the "Seattle Post Intelligencer," Tim Shorrock from "The Journal of Commerce," and Jeff Manning from "Oregonian" Newspaper. (October 17th). Retrieved August 29th from the World Wide Web: Part I of call: Part II of call  and supporting documents: 

Oakes, Leslie S. (2000) "Attestation: Nike and the Role of Auditing in Decentering the Subject." Academy of Management All Academy Showcase Symposium on "Time and Nike," David Boje and Nancy Landrum (co-chairs), August 9th, Session #170.

Oakes, Leslie S., Barbara Townley, Michele Chwastiak (1997). "Theorizing Accounting at the Margin: Bourdieu, Ledger Art, Nike and Elder Care." Paper presented at the Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Accounting Conference, UK.  e.g.  "Ernst & Young and other accountants who have been called upon to document or attest to fair labor standards at Nike and other overseas factories. In this vignette, we note how the accounts of Indonesian and other third world women are partially silenced by the attestations of "professional" accounting firms" (press here).

O'Rourke, Dara, (1995) "Economics, Environment and Equity: Policy Integration During Development in Vietnam," Berkeley Planning Journal, Vol. 10, pp. 15-35.

O'Rourke, Dara, (1997) Smoke from a Hired Gun: A Critique of Nike's Labor and Environmental Auditing in Vietnam as Performed by Ernst & Young, report published by the Transnational Resource and Action Center: San Francisco, November 10th, available on the Internet at:

O'Rourke, Dara and Garrett Brown (1999), "Beginning to Just Do It: Current Workplace and Environmental Conditions at the Tae Kwang Vina Nike Shoe Factory in Vietnam," report released March 14, 1999, available on the Internet. Garrett Brown/Dara O'Rourke NGO Health & Safety Monitoring Training (June, 2000). Nike contract to be host worksite for training local Indonesian NGOs on health and safety capacity building and monitoring.

O'Rourke, Dara (forthcoming 2000), "Community-Driven Regulation: Towards an Improved Model of Environmental Regulation in Vietnam," in Peter B. Evans (ed.), Livable Cities: The Politics of Urban Livelihood and Sustainability, Berkeley: University of California Press.

O"Rourke, Dara (2000). Monitoring the Monitors: A Critique of PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) Labor Monitoring.  Unpublished paper September 28th, 2000, MIT. To download entire report using ADOBE.

O'Rourke, Dara (forthcoming 2001), "Motivating a Conflicted Environmental State," for a special issue of Organization and Environment, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

San Francisco cartoonist, animator, and playwright Dan McHale does a great cartoon about the whole  Jonah Peretti, Ording "SWEATSHOP" sewn on his Nike shoes urban legend. Source


Peretti, Jonah (2001). My Nike Media Adventure. The Nation. Feature Story April 9th  Peretti, an MIT graduate student took what I call an antenarrative (a bet that he could create a story that would catch on) and sent it by email to 12 friends, who sent it to their friends, until two web sites posted it, and then a string of news papers, and finally the Today Show flew Jonah in for an interview, and even the Wall Street Journal got into the urban legend distribution business. The story passed from antenarrative (pre-story) to story, to legend in just two months. Is there anyone on the planet who has not heard the story. Peretti's article in the Nation, raises some interest issues about the role of micromedia in the protest movement, and how it interacts with macromedia.  For more on antenarrative, see What is Antenarrative? or Boje (2001a).

Piven, Frances Fox & Richard A Cloward (2000) "Power repertoires and globalization." Politics & Society Sep Volume:  28 Issue:  3: 413-430.

Ryter, Loren (1994) "Inhabiting NikeTown" reprinted with author's permission for Academics Studying Nike Web Site.

Solnit, Rebecca (2003). From the Faraway Nearby THE SILENCE OF THE
... At one time, Nike was the goddess of victory and shoes told stories. Orinon On Line Magazine, July August 2003.

Schwartz, Peter (2000). When good companies do bad things 
Strategy & Leadership. Volume: 28Issue: 3: 4-11.

Stabile, Carol A. (2000). "Nike, social responsibility, and the hidden abode of production." Critical Studies in Media Communication, Vol. 17 (2): 186-204). Carol A. Stabile is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Pittsburgh.  Summary and Review - This article is critical of Nike's rhetoric of social responsibility as a global citizen. Stabile argues it's self-presentation as socially responsible is a "dubious claim." To succeed in its self-presentation rhetoric, Nike uses a combination of visible as well as invisible contradictions and controversies. An example of a contradiction is "On the one hand, Nike has defended its labor practices, claiming that the $1.50 paid to Indonesian workers was not really $1.50, but 3,000 rupiah and that, in any case, it was substantially more than the wages made by local farmers" (p. 198). Then, Nike evades accountability claiming alternatively that, it is not their job to set wages, they do not actually do the manufacturing, and the it can not change local cultural practices.  Stabile critically reviews the emergence of the sneaker controversies dating the first in 1971 when Reverend Jesse Jackson launched a boycott of Nike products because of the lack of African Americans in executive-level positions, while Nike used African-Americans to sell its sneakers. Nike in 1990 tried to rebound by claiming that Reebok had started the controversy (p. 196). The second major issue is 1991 when Nike and Reebok went into an advertising war to gain sneaker market share, but the fall out was inner-city violence (p. 187). The news coverage broke into the public view in 1992 due to children killing each other to get Nike and Reebok shoes.  At issue is the manipulation of popular postmodern culture of desire and the selling of African-American bodies while criminalizing market purchases.  Stabile builds on Anita Cole's work on an African-American critique of PLAY (Participation in the Lives of America's Youth) program created by Nike. PLAY restored the public image of Nike as socially responsible during a time of heavy media critique for racism and inner-city violence. New York Times and other media ran articles about Nike catering their marketing efforts to reach drug dealers who had to have Nike sneakers (p. 189-191).  Stabile referring to Nike sweatshops in Asia, argues that "if we scratch the surface of Nike's veneer a bit, we can see how the codes of conduct so valued by corporate culture are displaced onto groups of people who haven't the economic means to pursue them legally but are nevertheless held responsible for the genesis of such codes of desire" (p. 191). Stabile also reviews the history of Nike pitches in ads that got them into hot water, from using themes of revolution and rebellion to casting its products as pro-gender and pro-race and multi-culturalism while paying poverty wages to these same groups. "Here, it is revealing that while Nike can refer to domestic violence and other gender issues to sell its sneakers, it does not refer to statistics on racist oppression" (p. 194). The third controversy has been the last decade of Nike's mode of production and labor practices. "With increasing frequency, Nike's production practices have erupted into the mainstream media causing a flurry of public relations activity" (p. 198). The first time was in 1992 hearings of Congress over sneaker controversies in Indonesia, prompting Nike to write its Code of Conduct. Second, on July 2nd, 1993, CBS ran a story on the contradiction of 100 dollar sneakers made by workers paid a dollar, fifty.   And fourth, Nike's domestic factories are coming under increased criticism. 

"Currently, Nike operates a high-tech distribution center in Memphis, Tennessee, where between 60 and 225 temporary workers with no job security and no health benefits are employed on a just-in-time basis. Nike has continued to refused to release its African-American employment figures referring instead to 'minority' employees, 200 of whom are employed in the Memphis facility and a number of whom are Vietnamese manual laborers in Beaverton, Oregon, engaged in the production of Nike's Air-Soles (Stabile, 2000: 198, citing Strasser & Becklund, 1991: 658). 

The Stabile article is one of the strongest critiques yet of the difference between the spectacle of PR image-erection and the reality of working and consumption conditions. The article does not review all the controversies, but she does set the context for connecting postmodern culture to postindustrial global corporate practices. 

Sabel, Charles, Dara O'Rourke and Archon Fung (2000), "Ratcheting Labor Standards: Regulation for Continuous Improvement in the Global Workplace," Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, Social Protection Discussion Paper No.11.

Sellnow, Timoth L. & Jeffry D.  Brand (2001). Establishing the structure of reality for an industry: Model and anti-model arguments as advocacy in Nike's crisis communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research. Vol. 29, Iss. 3; pg. 278-295. The article concludes that becuase Nike's website includes many testimonials of the improved conditions in the factories it uses, that Nike has taken corrective action and is socially responsible. No data is offered to support this claim being Nike website statements. 

Sikor, Thomas O. and Dara O'Rourke, (1996) "Economic and Environmental Dynamics of Reform in Vietnam," Asian Survey, Berkeley CA, Vol. XXXVI, No. 6, June, pp. 601-617.

Shaw, Randy. (1999) Reclaiming America: Nike, Clean Air and National activism. Berkeley: University of California Press. (1, 2, 3, 4 video Counter Spin, 5 Charlie Cray  review, 6 GE ). Shaw's main point is that in an age of corporate globalization, national and international campaigns must have a strong grassroots base to succeed against powerful corporate opponents. See book review and summary below

Stilwell, Frank (no date) GLOBALISATION: How did we get to where we are? (and where can we go now?) Stilwell is an Associate Professor of Economics, University of Sydney (press here). "For business enterprises globalisation offers magnificent opportunities for flexible production, cost reduction and tax minimisation. Concurrently, there are opportunities for environmentalists, human rights activists and indigenous rights activists to build more linkages, helping to foster a global consciousness of these progressive concerns. But there is a darker side. The globalisation of capital in particular is commonly associated with the exploitation of labour - Nike's use of Indonesian workers is a notorious example. That sort of exploitation often involves damaging health consequences. The business tax minimisation to which I have already alluded - perfectly logical from the view of businesses themselves - simultaneously undermines the fiscal capacity of states to ensure good public health and other social services. It throws the burden of financing infrastructure more on to other forms of taxation: this is an important element driving the push for higher consumption taxes, such as the GST to be introduced in Australia next year."

Varley, Pamela, Carolyn Mathiasen & Meg Voorhes (1998) The Sweatshop Quandary: Corporate Responsibility On The Global Frontier. Washington DC: Investor Responsibility Research Center. (1 table of contents, 2 IRRC, 3)

Venkatesh, Alladi (1999)  "Postmodernism perspectives for macromarketing: An inquiry into the global information and sign economy." Journal of Macromarketing; Boulder; Dec 1999; Volume: 19 ( 2): 153-169.

    • To summarize, Nike's ideology treats sports as a human virtueand conspicuous consumption as virtuous. Nike aesthetization consumption becomes spectacle and sport is the body culture. 
    • "On the positive side, Nike represents a postmodern cultural institution that has triggered the dramatic acceleration of the reshaping of structures of experiences precipitated by the extremely rapid advances in information technologies. On the critical side, it refers to the questioning of the sensibilities and terms of the economic and social order created by modernity.  ... So long as TNCs [Transnational Corporations] can locate facilities in LDCs characterized by low wages, favorable tax structures, and a lack of government regulation in the areas of workplace safety and environmental protection, the outsourcing of production and employment will continue until global parities are established. "


Wells, Don & Josh Greenberg (2000). "Nike, the Fair Labor Association, and the Global Alliance for Workers and Communities: The New Private, Voluntary Regulation of Labor Rights and Standards in the Global Economy."  Academy of Management All Academy Showcase Symposium on "Time and Nike," David Boje and Nancy Landrum (co-chairs), August 9th, Session #170. 

Wokutch, Richard E. (2001a). Nike and its Critics: Beginning a Dialogue. Organization and Environment, 14, 207-237. This is a introduction to a debate between Nike's Amanda Tucker and Todd McLean, and Nike critic, Jeffrey Ballinger.  The debate was critiqued in a subsequent issue by Boje (2001m), and O&E gave Wokutch space to respond to Boje (Wokutch, 2001b).

Wokutch, Richard E. (2001b). The Nike/IABS Debate: A Reply to David Boje. Organization and Environment, 14 (3) 364-368. This is a reply to Boje (2001m).



Goldman, Robert and Stephen Papson (1998) Nike Culture: The Sign of the Swoosh. London: Sage Limited (1, 2, 3, 5, 6). The authors analyze the complex practices of Nikes intertextuality of signs, stories, and images and how Nike's sign-world of advertising inevitably fuses fantasy with commodity. Goldman and   Papson (p. 128) conclude in their  that Nike is representative of a new stage of capitalist institutions rooted in the kinds of global and transnational capitalism that spawned industries where commodities are themselves symbols.  Goldman argues in an interview "Nike has been, over the past decade, the kingpin of the commodity-sign world. With its swoosh logo and former 'Just Do It' slogan, Nike climbed to the top in terms of brand recognition" (1). Blending themes of empowerment, transcendence and irreverence, the advertising campaign launches by Nike promoted the company to the top of the sports shoe and apparel industry (3). Its swoosh logo is now globally pervasive and Nike has become synonymous with sports culture.  Contemporary postmodern culture is a sign economy and what has been happening between the anti-sweatshop movement and Nike is an example of "sign wars" (Sign Wars was title of their 1996 book). Nike had been winning the Sign Wars and advertised a coherent philosophy in a world of fragmented discourse and rapid change (6). As the public turned cynical about traditional values, Nike and its ad agency Wieden & Kennedy, launched ads focusing on endurance, transcendence, willpower and spirituality. Nike fuses race, class and gender to the idea that sports is a transcendent and spiritual experience, something one can attain by wearing Nike apparel. The network of social movements and anti-sweatshop activists have  have used the Nike "Just Do It" slogan against the company (4).

Greider, William  (1999) One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism

Have you been a victim of "downsizing" or wondered why it happens to other people? Have you questioned a company's decision to relocate its factories to China when it is making record profits in the US? Have you ever pondered your new pair of Nike running shoes and doubted the morality of Nike employing Malaysian girls aged as young as 14?... Nike's rational for producing its running shoes in Malaysia is simply that it can cut its labor costs to a fraction of what they would be in the US. Nike has come in for criticism recently because of its labor practices, but the company is far from alone... Greider...[bbelieves] Capitalism is an unforgiving force that punishes companies (by losing stock value) for not finding the cheapest and quickest way to get their goods to market and by not creating new consumers. ... The solutions to the problems Greider raises are not simple in theory, let alone in practice. Coordinating global labor movements to match global capitalism could be one answer. Having governments coordinate and agree employment/market quotas could be another. Any solution is bound to find a lot of resistance from the multinationals, however, whose sole allegiance is to their shareholders. Ultimately, each of us buys the goods in question and perhaps that is where our real power lies. If you disagree with Nike CEO Phil Knight using Malaysian girls to make
training shoes, then vote with your dollar and buy another brand.
(book review site).


Kilbourne, Jean (1999) Deadly Persuasion: Why Women and Girls Must Fight the Addictive Power of Advertising + Free Press (November 1999) (press here) ISBN: 0-684-86599-8

In 1998 Nike's sponsorship of CBS's Olympic coverage was rewarded when the correspondents delivered the news wearing jackets emblazoned with Nike's symbolic swoosh. The president of CBS News vehemently denied that this sponsorship had anything to do with the thwarting of a follow-up to a hard-hitting investigative piece on Nike for 48 Hours. The editor of The San Francisco Examiner likewise denied that Nike's cosponsorship of their big annual promotion was in any way related to the decision to kill a column by a reporter that was highly critical of Nike. 

Klein, Naomi  (1999) No Logo : Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies  Picador (St. Martin's Press) USA; ISBN: 0312203438  (press here). This is a great book, tracking the ad strategies and camouflage of major corporations. What does Klein conclude about Nike? 

"There is no doubt that companies like Nike have learned that labor-rights abuses can cost them. But the spotlight being shined on these companies is both roving and random: it is able to shine down on a few corners of the global production line, but darkness still shrouds the rest.  Human rights, far from being protected by this process, are selectively respected: reforms seem to be implemented solely on the basis of where the spotlight's beam was last directed. There is absolutely no evidence that any of this reform activity is coalescing into a universal standard of ethical corporate behavior that will be applied around the world;' and no system of universal enforcement is on the horizon.

Instead, what we have with the proliferation of voluntary codes of conduct and ethical business initiatives is a haphazard and piecemeal mess of crisis management" (Klein, 2000: 434). 

LaFeber, Walter (1999) Michael Jordan and the New Global Capitalism (1999) W. W. Norton & Company

Chapter One "At the end of the twentieth century, Americans, their economy, and their culture seemed to dominate many parts of the globe. A basketball player who lived in Chicago, Michael Jordan, was arguably the most recognized and revered of those Americans to billions of people worldwide. In China, schoolchildren ranked him with Zhou Enlai as the two greatest figures in twentieth-century history. The children knew Zhou because he helped create their Communist Revolution. They knew Jordan because he miraculously floated through the air as both an athlete and as a pitchman for American-produced advertisements for Nike shoes, which the children avidly followed on television. His coach in Chicago, Phil Jackson, believed that Jordan "had somehow been transformed in the public mind from a great athlete to a sports deity" —especially when an amazed Jackson saw people kneeling before the statue of Jordan that stands in front of the United Center, home of the Chicago Bulls."


Shaw, Randy. (1999) Reclaiming America: Nike, Clean Air and the Ne National activism. Berkeley: University of California Press. (1, 2, 3, 4 video Counter Spin, 5 Charlie Cray  review, 6 GE ). Shaw's main point is that in an age of corporate globalization, national and international campaigns must have a strong grassroots base to succeed against powerful corporate opponents; "Nike's heavy investment in promoting its image made it susceptible to a deft media campaign conducted by a loose coalition of human rights workers, student groups, religious groups and union activists; anti-Nike activists crystallized opposition to socially irresponsible economic globalization around an easily understood core idea: a living wage for all workers" (5).  Shaw provides an activist-oriented analysis of methods of effective mobilization campaigns against Nike. Shaw argues it is time for campus activists to channel energy from closely knit local groups into broader causes. He describes how different groups worked together in a coalition to challenge corporate giant Nike on its treatment of its overseas workers by focusing on the living wage issue. Shaw is Director of the Tenderloin Housing Clinic, located in San Francisco, California, and author of The Activist's Handbook (California, 1996). "Focusing on the David and Goliath struggle between Nike and grassroots activists critical of the company's overseas labor practices, Shaw shows how national activism can rewrite the supposedly ironclad rules of the global economy by ensuring fair wages and decent living standards for workers at home and abroad" (2). Shaw argues that big business (economic interests) have stolen the national agenda and that progressive activists with their local politics have let it happen (4 video).  To reclaim the national arena, people must reengage in national struggle. Grassroots campaigns are rewriting the global agenda driven by big money. Activists are deploying more sophisticated media strategies (the echo effect of stories more than once that travel through the media via columnists eg. Beb Herbert of NY Times or Steven Greenberg of the Washington Post). Then the mainstream media gets involves. The columnists percolate the stories into the national media.  Nike places its stories and editorials in newspapers as part of its campaign to put their message into mainstream media. USAS and WRC have put pressure through the media on an economic justice movement that has pressured congress to delay entry of China into world trade camp.  Big money does not always win in the bid to reclaim America's agenda.

Zasek, S. 2004. The path to corporate responsibility. Harvard Business Review, Dec. Quote "Yet institutional investors have shown a startling disinterest in Nike's handling of its labor standards." This is an example of PR image management. Simon Zasek review how Nike completed 5 actions needed to become a top-ranked ethical company. Zasek does not report that Nike is a key sponsor of AccountAbility, who is doing the ranking, and pays Zadek's salary, nor that Zasek was on the "Operating Council" of the now-defunct "Global Alliance for Workers and Communities." This is also a clear example of JUNK SCIENCE. Inserting some scholarly-sounding writing, making it seem as science, when it is a PR spin.


OLDER (and Great) BOOKS

Ballinger, Jeff and Olsson, Claes (Eds) (1997) Behind the Swoosh: The Struggle of Indonesians Making Nike Shoes. Sweden: Global Publications Foundations and International Coalition for Development Action ISBN 91-973157-0-2 

Gereffi, Gary & Miguel Korzeniewicz  (1993) Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism  Economics and Economic History, Contributions in, No. 149 (ISSN: 0084-9235)  Greenwood Press. Westport, Conn. 1993. 352 pages  LC 93-13956. ISBN 0-313-28914-X. GM8914 $65.00 

Katz, D. (1994) Just Do It: The Nike Spirit in the Corporate World. Random House. 

   Strasser, J. B., and Becklund, Lauri (1991). SWOOSH: The Story of Nike and the Men Who Played There. NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. (1993 Harper Collins, NY). (1, 2).

See Academic Articles; Boje Articles; New Books; Old Books



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