David M. Boje
Editor, Journal of Organizational Change Management AND 
TAMARA Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science - See home page
Department of Management, MSC 3DJ
New Mexico State University
PO Box 30001/Las Cruces, NM 88003
(505) 646-2391 dboje@nmsu.edu
Fax: (505) 646-1372


1. "The Social Audit of the New Global Enterprise" Joint issue Critical Issues in Accounting, TAMARA, & JOCM

2. JOCM Special Issue on NIKE Just In Time: Change Management Research Methodologies

LINKS for background

Papers for background

Additional Background

Just In Time NIKE GAMEBOARD - http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje


The Social Audit of the new Global Enterprise

On August 10th, 2000 two calls for paper concerning Nike were issued. The first involves the collaboration of three academic journals:

Critical Accounting Review http://www.inderscience.com/jhome.php?jcode=ijca
TAMARA Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science http://www.zianet.com/boje/tamara/ 
Journal of Organizational Change Management  http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/jocm.html  

1. Social Audit of the new Global Enterprise.

Papers are invited for a joint issue of Critical Perspectives On Accounting (Tony Tinker, co-editor TonyTinker@email.msn.com  ), TAMARA, Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science (David Boje, Editor), and Journal of Organizational Change Management (David Boje, Editor dboje@nmsu.edu  ).

The joint issue seeks material that critiques and evaluates "Methodologies for advancing Social Audits." This includes developments in the scope and practice of the field of social auditing, the expanding role of NGO's and large accounting firms, and the efficacy of corporate codes of conduct, etc. Specific articles will be published in one of three journal issues. Editorial and review processes will be coordinated by Tony Tinker and David Boje.

Authors are asked to nominate their intended journal outlet and follow the Instructions for Authors for their intended journal for publications. All papers will be subject to the journal's normal refereeing process. Authors wishing to discuss their paper prior to submission may contact either of the Special Issue editors. The deadline for submission of papers is 31 January 2001 but earlier submissions are encouraged. Authors should include 3 hardcopies and a disk copy of their manuscripts (in Word or Wordperfect format).

For more information on the participating journals:

Critical Perspectives on Accounting Standing Critical Conference Website: http://bus.baruch.cuny.edu/critical/ 
TAMARA: http://www.zianet.com/boje/tamara/ 
JOCM: http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/jocm.html 

Papers should be sent to:

Tony Tinker
Professor & Co-Editor
Critical Perspectives on Accounting
Baruch College: Box E-723
City University of New York
17 Lexington Avenue
New York, NY 10010
Tel: 212 802 6436
Fax: 212 802 6423
Email: TonyTinker@msn.com 
Email Tony_Tinker@baruch.cuny.edu 
Standing Critical Conference Website:

David M. Boje, Ph.D.
Professor of Management
Editor, Journal of Organizational Change Management
Department of Management, MSC 3DJ
New Mexico State University
P.O. Box 30001/Las Cruces,NM 88003-8001
Phone (505) 646-2391 Work
Phone (505) 532-1693 Home Office
Fax (505) 646-1372
Email: dboje@nmsu.edu 
Home Pages http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje 
TAMARA - new JOURNAL http://www.zianet.com/boje/tamara/ 
Academics Studying Nike http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/nike.html 

Green Accounting http://web.nmsu.edu/~dboje/TDgreenaccounting.html 


2. JOCM Special Issue on NIKE Just In Time: Change Management Research Methodologies. The second theme issue for JOCM will focus on the All Academy of Management Session held in Toronto August 9, 2000 (Press here for list of presentations to the JUST IN TIME: Time and Nike session).  (Press here for a transcript and set of responses the IABS session). (Press here for Nike JUST IN TIME Gameboard from Boje's introduction to the session). The purpose of this second JOCM special issue is to continue the dialog begun between Nike corporation the the panel.  Specifically in this call we will publish a set of papers by various academics (presenters from the session as well as additional papers) and invite Nike Corporation to include responses to each of the papers in the special issue. Contact David Boje dboje@nmsu.edu for more information on this issue. If response is great enough, we may extend to a double issue or ask our friends at other journals such as M@n@gement and Tamara, Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science for additional space. Here is an example of JUST in TIME, Nike:

Klein, Naomi  (1999) No Logo : Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies  Picador (St. Martin's Press) USA; ISBN: 0312203438  (press here). This is a great book, tracking the ad strategies and camouflage of major corporations. What does Klein conclude about Nike? 

"There is no doubt that companies like Nike have learned that labor-rights abuses can cost them. But the spotlight being shined on these companies is both roving and random: it is able to shine down on a few corners of the global production line, but darkness still shrouds the rest.  Human rights, far from being protected by this process, are selectively respected: reforms seem to be implemented solely on the basis of where the spotlight's beam was last directed. There is absolutely no evidence that any of this reform activity is coalescing into a universal standard of ethical corporate behavior that will be applied around the world;' and no system of universal enforcement is on the horizon.

Instead, what we have with the proliferation of voluntary codes of conduct and ethical business initiatives is a haphazard and piecemeal mess of crisis management" (Klein, 2000: 434). 

TAMARA Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science http://www.zianet.com/boje/tamara/ is doing a related special issue on this theme. 




Academics Studying Nike - maintains an annotated list of academic publications including journal articles, books and dissertations. Main page http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/nike/ and includes a locator of factories around the world.

Bartolucci, Noah Stronger code Officials, students look to implement apparel
agreement. Duke University. http://www.dukenews.duke.edu/dial99/code205.htm 

Boje, D. M. 1998a Amos Tuck's Post-Sweat Nike Spin Pp 618-623. In Business Research Yearbook: Global Business Perspectives, Vol. V. Biberman, J. & Alkafarji, A (Eds.). This is a reanalysis of Amos Tuck Business Schools' Wage Study statistics. Nike uses the Tuck study to justify not paying a living wage. http://business.nmsu.edu/mgt/handout/boje/bnike/index.html 

Boje, D. M. 2000c "Nike Corporate Writing of Academic, Business, and Cultural Practices." A shorter version will appear in Management Communication Quarterly. http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/papers/Nike_Corp_Writing_Long_version.html 

Boje, D. M. For more Boje articles go to http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/nike/nikemain.html#bojewriting 

Elliott, Jeff  Santa's Little Sweatshop http://www.monitor.net/monitor/sweatshop/ss-intro.html 

Falla, Ricardo (Father) (1999)  Peace and Reconciliation Through Justice  National Jesuit News, April 1999 http://www.nlcnet.org/honduras/falla2.htm 

Gill, Roger & Meg Kinnard (1999) History of the sweatshop debate at Georgetown. Vol 3(6). http://www.georgetown.edu/publications/independent/issues/99.02-3.6/1a.html 

Marklein, Mary Beth (2000) Making them sweat USA TODAY 04/13/00 http://www.usatoday.com/life/lds036.htm  

Nobody could have predicted two years ago that college students would get so worked up over the T-shirts and baseball caps that bear school logos. 

Marklein, Mary Beth (2000) Making them sweat USA TODAY 04/13/00 Companies' watchdog role disputed http://www.usatoday.com/life/lds039.htm 

Rash, Trent (1999) Bookstore might stock sweatshop goods ( October 12). http://www.themaneater.com/1999/10/12/news/sweatshop.html 

Saipan update  Eight Additional Firms Agree to Settle in Lawsuit Bobbin Magazine. http://www.bobbin.com/BOBBINGROUP/BOBBINMAG/jun00/watch.html 

Leading U.S. retailers and manufacturers, including Calvin Klein Inc., Jones Apparel Group, Liz Claiborne Inc., The May Department Stores Co., OshKosh B’Gosh Inc., Sears, Roebuck and Co., Tommy Hilfiger USA Inc. and Warnaco Inc., have agreed to settle claims against them in a federal class-action lawsuit alleging sweatshop conditions in the garment industry on the western Pacific island of Saipan, a U.S. Commonwealth.  The announcement, made in late March, brings the total
number of U.S. companies that have settled to 17.

Wetzel, Melanie (2000) Working youth -- an overview of child labor in Honduras  Honduras This Week (September 11). Edition 11. 

Government institutions work to eradicate child labor in spite of cultural resistance.  TEGUCIGALPA -- Honduras' signing of the 1989 U.N. Convention on Children's Rights was the beginning of a new era of child protection in Honduras. The Convention requires signatories to create new legislation and programs to improve the lives of children. Honduras, unlike some of the larger, more powerful countries, can be sanctioned economically for not complying. Full article by MELANIE WETZEL http://www.marrder.com/htw/national.htm 

Sabel, Charles, Dara O'Rourke & Archon Fung  (2000) Ratcheting Labor Standards: Regulation for Continuous Improvement in the Global Workplace  (dated February 23). Accessed from web September 13, 2000: http://www.law.columbia.edu/sabel/papers/ratchPO.html 

Van Der Werf, Martin (2000) Sweatshop Issue Escalates With Sit-Ins and Policy Shifts: Bowing to student pressure, several universities join a labor-backed monitoring group. Rutgers March 10. http://ur.rutgers.edu/news/ACLA/chroniclewrc.htm 


Please consult http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/nike/call_for_nike_research.html for draft of research proposal Boje is submitting to Nike Corporation. Your ideas are appreciated.

ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND ON THESE TOPICS -  Gear For Sports, Jansport (along with Nike, Reebok) and others who license and sell garments bearing university logos at major universities have been the target of a wave of student protest. The University of California system alone has $52 million in apparel sales. A growing collective of college and university student and faculty groups around the world are questioning the origin of university licensed apparel. In March [1999], Notre Dame became the first university to hire an independent firm, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC), to monitor conditions at licensed factories. It also created a task force to study the issue and recommend a policy to deal with labor abuses. This latest request was a recommendation of that Task Force. Student activists praised the move, calling it a reversal of the administration's previous position (Logan, 1999). This is the biggest groundswell of student social consciousness the US has seen since the Vietnam campus demonstrations of the 1960s and 1970s and the anti-apartheid movement of the 1980s. The New York Times, USA Today, Los Angeles Times and other major publications have written articles about it. Duke University, for example, was home to the first student anti-sweatshop protest in 1998 (winning an agreement in March after 31-hour take-over of their President's office). "Students held demonstrations at Harvard, Yale, Princeton and dozens of other colleges and universities, demanding that universities force companies making apparel with school logos to disclose the names and addresses of their factories" (Greenhouse New York Times, October 8, 1999). Since then, students at hundreds of campuses - linked by the group United Students Against Sweatshops - have promoted such activism. 

This campaign has had results which have changed how multinational corporations and universities operate. For example, in 1999 when Nike published a list of 41 factories in 11 countries on its web site (www.nikebiz.com), Champion, Russell, Gear for Sports and Jansport agreed to disclose factory locations by January 1, 2000 (See Sweatshop News, 1999; Steven Greenhouse New York Times, October 8, 1999). 

There is currently a war between two monitoring organizations, the Fair Labor Association (FLA) and the Workers Rights Consortium (WRC).  As of September 16, 2000 FLA has signed up 142 universities as affiliates and WRC has signed 139 affiliated universities.  However, the rate of growth in WRC signers is higher than FLA as FLA has attained more critiques such as Sabel, O'Rourke, & Fung, (2000). Articles examining this trend as well as the role of Social Audit and the New Global Enterprise are being requested. One research question is how is the disclosure of third world factory subcontractor locations the same thing as having an actual monitoring report in the hands of the university administration, faculty and students. First, not much auditing is happening, when it is conducted it is in selected model firms with pre-announced inspections, and the reports, when released at all are carefully edited so that all the important information is stripped away.  All it means, in the case of FLA is that monitoring of some factories will happen in the future. When we do not know and who gets the reports is also not known. But for now knowing where a product is made is a step toward accountability. One research topic could be the analysis of discourse between FLA, WRC, and universities. For example, some transcripts from Columbia University's meeting with faculty, administration, students, FLA and WRC representatives is on the web.

There is a related and also a very important issue.  What is a living wage?  The new global enterprise says a living wage is too subjective to measure and instead pegs wages at the lowest legal ate (and sometimes below that).  There is a difference between a living and a poverty wage, that makes for greater corporate profit.  Is there a method to measure living wage? There is a need to begin testing and calculating the Living Wage Formulae (See one Methodology for Calculating Living Wage). 

Another important issue is what is a sweatshop? The new global enterprise resists defining what is a sweatshop.  They say it is a cultural thing or that sweatshops are just a natural part of a nations economic development. Yet, there are definitions, the US General Accounting Office, for example, defines a sweatshop as a business that regularly violates wage, child labor, health and/or safety laws. And young adults also work in sweatshops, not just in the third world, but in major metropolitan cities in late capitalist economies. 

How will the articles be sorted? Articles related to change and change management will be published in JOCM.  Articles related to the Accounting practices of Price Waterhouse Coopers and Nike will be published in Critical Accounting Review.  Articles related to critical and postmodern theory critiques of the global enterprise will be published in TAMARA.  At this point the proposal is to publish different articles in the three journal issues, but coordinate the editorials and the review process between Tony Tinker and David Boje. 

From the viewpoint of JOCM this is a pioneering initiative because we are able to look at the research methodology issues in change management. This could include articles on not only PWC as a change agent, but Global Alliance and Fair Labor Practices as well as Workers' Rights Consortium research methodology and change management issues. At issue, is the question: are accountants qualified to research human rights?; what is the implications of global enterprises such as Nike paying PWC, pre-announcing the PWC inspections, and just how is the publicly disclosed information on corporate websites based upon a PWC audit negotiated?