CHAPTER 4 
INFLUENCING  STORIES

David Boje & Robert Dennehy's
Managing in the Postmodern World
1st Edition 1993; 2nd Edition 1994;
3rd Edition October, 2000. This chapter, October 17, 2000
For Free to you on the WWW.
You may copy for free and use in any teaching or training setting at no charge. You have our permission to copy. It was written as an undergraduate Intro to Management Text, but has been used at all levels, including in Management Training at Trader Joe's.

Consult Managing in the Postmodern World home page for more chapters as I get them done. There are also plenty of cases, syllabus copies, and additional  learning materials to go with this book - D. Boje 
(press here). 

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Table 4.1:

What is TAMARA'ISH INFLUENCE?

Bureaucratic Influence
Quest Influence
Chaos Influence
Postmodern Influence
The FOUR VOICES OF INFLUENCE
What is an event - to be influenced?
What is Stakeholder Influence?
See Paper, Death, Terror & Motivation Theory.

INFLUENCE DEFINITIONS:

PRE-MODERN INFLUENCE

Influence is solace.

S Solace: Journeymen could call a democratic meeting to vote in a fine (solace) to enforce a shop rule.

O Order: There is a divinely-inspired pre-destined order to the universe. Social Darwinism: man is destined to be poor or rich. Do not interfere with God's "survival of the fittest" order.

L Lazy: Man fought the temptation to be lazy, sinful and prideful by meditating on virtues.

A Attitude: Attracted or repelled success or failure. PMA (Positive Mental Attitude). Use PMA-Affirmations like: "I feel healthy! I feel happy! I feel terrific!" Attitudes had religious significance.

C Culture: The craft-based, fraternal culture influenced behavior.

E Entrepreneurial: Self-reliant entrepreneurs could graduate their apprenticeship and be master of their own enterprise.

MODERN INFLUENCE

Influence is comply.

C Conformity. Correct and docil-ize. Use human relations approaches to peer group influence.

O Obedience: There must be obedience and respect by employees for their firm. Discipline is based on fear, surveillance, and the internalized gaze.

M Motivate: Use rewards and punishments (carrot and stick). Pay them to comply and keep an eye on them.

P Performativity: People are human resources to be used by the system to maximize its performance.

L Logical: Man seeks equity and integration, reacts rationally to rational circumstances.

Y Yielding: Man yields to the pace of the machine, to the layers of authority over him.

POSTMODERN INFLUENCE

Influence is individual in the web of the global economy.

I Independent: Avoid domination, be private, seek freedom from collective influences.

N Narcissist: In search of a self-image, self-will.

D De-centered: Person is a multiplicity of selves, practices many logics, dis-unified, not-centered. Anthropocentric versus ecocentric logics. 

I Individual: Spontaneous (not planned or rehearsed), unique in thought and action.

V Voices: Each person has many voices in them. Some have less influence, some have more.  The Fourth Voice is postmodern. The voiceless presence of all species.

I Irrational: Fragmented, willing to participate in contrary causes and multiple realities.

D Diversity. Discord and variety are balances to unity, conformity, and community.

U Unconforming: Self-disciplined rather than other-disciplined; rebel against authority; defy totalitarianism.

A Affirming the Self: Self-affirmatives like: "I feel healthy! I feel happy! I feel terrific!" to gain personal control over mind (avoid outside influence and coercion), to promote the self, and retain freedom to choose feelings and actions.

L Linguistic: Individuals influence by language, by categories, by storied personifications.

What is Influencing?

Establishing attitudes and rewards to motivate human behavior over time to enthusiastically achieve planned objectives.

PRE. Solace. Influencing is by democratic enforcement of shop rules in a seniority-based, fraternal culture where attitude holds religious significance. The gaze comes for the tight-knit community and paternalistic family to influence our behaviors. Nobles, land barons and the clergy influence our etiquette. SOLACE is applied in the intersecting gaze of community, family, religious, and feudal life. Pre-mod influences are here today. Look at the revival of ethics and spirituality in the workplace.

MOD. Comply. Influencing conforms and doci-lizes people by fear to be cogs in the performativity machine. In the Hobbes-ian world of the mechanistic enterprise managers use wages and training as levers of influence.  Management science lays out our time and spaces, and we engage in their clockwork influences.  The media age of advertising keeps us all under the influence.  Influence have moved to the global community, a virtual web of sub-contracts between the first world and the feudal sweat-factories of the third. In the spectacle of over-production and over-consumption the spectator is influence by many great McDonaldization, Disneyfication and Las Vegatization spectacles. Beneath the theme park and casino is a modern factory. COMPLY comes in these spectacle forms.

POST. Individual. Influence is de-centered so each person has many voices and selves with unconforming diversity and a celebration of differences. Mechanistic science has become Biotech, Virtual and Robotic science of the post-Newton age, a time when Einstein relativity invades every sphere. Influences are fragmented in our multi-tasking, edge of chaos life, where at any time the next cell phone call will trigger someone to "go postal." It is the age of rage, the over-access, over-work, over-choiced world.  A time when the post-WTO world asks for simplicity, meditation, animal rights, and participation in social movements to tame the predatory practices of the global transnational corporation.  The INDIVIDUAL is trying to regain a sense of balance, find empowerment, and seeking to unplug from the virtual Matrix; to find a self-designed of the many fragments and choices.

SOLACE, COMPLY, and INDIVIDUAL are influential forces in the postmodern condition, one that has nostalgic roots in premodern times, and has not learned to move beyond the managing practices of a McDonalds restaurant or an apparel company that says "we do not subcontract with sweatshops."

 

 

What is TAMARA'ISH INFLUENCE?

 

David M. Boje

 

Section Added: October 14, 2000

There are four facets of TAMARA that have influence upon managing and organizing. We refer to these as narrative frames, not found in isolation, but which interpenetrate one another. They are the bureaucratic, quest, chaos, and postmodern frames of influence. 

TAMARA-ish Influence? The theater of managing and organizing is a mansion with premodern, modern, and postmodern discursive performances. On its many stages, in the offices, board room, shareholder meeting and factory floor are the influences of the plots of comedy, romanticism, tragedy, and irony. Impromptu plays are too postmod for the mechanistic tastes of modern bureaucrats.  Charismatic, pre-mod performances are too passionate for the modern world. There are spontaneous movements, lapses of collective memory, bits of improv, but for the most part we are influence to repeat the same behaviors each working day, each hour, and for some each minute.  For most workers the individuality of the postmodern is an illusion, found only in the movies. The majority of people on the planet work in sweatshop conditions, or near-sweatshop situations, or even virtual sweatshops, as with the net-slaves. 

Sweatshop Influences on the Modern and Postmodern Stage - A stage worthy to be called tragic is the feudal sweatshop which is still ubiquitous despite centuries of reform to stem its influence. Our hypothesis is that living wage payment and healthy working conditions combined with Frederick Taylor's scientific work processes would increase production, profit, and worker prosperity in most of the world. Forget postmodern, when have we ever been modern, asks Bruno Latour? What prevents the end of sweatshop influences are the stakeholders who do not believe that transcending sweatshops is possible or profitable in today's world. Why else would every global national firm head for third world nations where sweatshops are an accepted way of life.

Some argue we can not define what is and is not a sweatshop, and therefore have no influence to bring to bear on an event that is fictional. Yet, the US General Accounting Office defines a sweatshop as a business that regularly violates wage, child labor, health and/or safety laws. Some history...

“The name, sweatshop, goes back to the late [some say middle, I say early] 1800s, and refers to the technique of "sweating" as much profit as possible out of each worker. Once a thriving tradition at the turn of the century, sweatshops saw their numbers dwindle in the face of relentless encroachment by labor organization and social legislation. By the post-war years they were pushed to the brink of extinction. But with the new arrangements made possible by the global economy -- highly mobile transnational capital, computer-coordinated production schedules, and free trade policies imposed by US AID and the World Bank -- we have been able to revive this old tradition and give it a new life in a new land: El Salvador” (Sweat Gear web site).  For a History of Sweatshops, see Smithsonian Exhibit (press here) but you will not find Marx, Taylor, or Smith mentioned there.  

Adam Smith (1759, 1776), Karl Marx (1867) and Frederick Taylor (1911) agreed that there are organizational alternatives to sweatshops that yield more productivity, profit, and net workers higher, even "living wages."  

“The name, sweatshop, goes back to the [middle and ] late 1800s, and refers to the technique of "sweating" as much profit as possible out of each worker. Once a thriving tradition at the turn of the century, sweatshops saw their numbers dwindle in the face of relentless encroachment by labor organization and social legislation. By the post-war years they were pushed to the brink of extinction. But with the new arrangements made possible by the global economy -- highly mobile transnational capital, computer-coordinated production schedules, and free trade policies” (Sweat Gear web site).  Apparel manufacture too often equates to sweatshop work that is based on modes of production and piece-wages that appears feudal in contrast to the kinds of factories that are recently attaining ISO9000, ISO14000, and SA8000 certification.

What about the influence of wage rates? Smith (1976) in the  Wealth of Nations, saw the choice about paying each worker a "living wage" was clear, economic and moral:

A man must always live by his work, and his wages must at least be sufficient to maintain him. They must even upon most occasions be somewhat more; otherwise it would be impossible for him to bring up a family, and the race of such workmen could not last beyond the first generation (Smith, 1776, CHAPTER VIII Of the Wages of Labour). 

Taylor (1911) also concludes, "the writer has great sympathy with those who are over-worked, but on the whole a greater sympathy for those who are under paid" (p. 18). And both Taylor and Marx wrote about paying living wages instead of paying the least wage the law allows, and held out viable solutions to sweatshops' "slow sacrifice of humanity" (Marx, 1867: 244).

What was revolutionary about Taylor's (1911) scientific management, was the observation that rest and refreshment are necessary to quality and sustained work. Any profit gained by overwork and snatching time for mealtimes and rest breaks and from paying the least possible bare subsistence wage and over-work in unhealthy and unpleasant situations was meager compared to the output of the high productivity enterprise. 

For Marx, piece-wage was a special form of time-wage. "In time-wages the labor is measured by its immediate duration, in piece-wages by the quantity of products in which the labor has embodied itself during a given time" (1867: 553). And piece-wages, from his point of view, afforded the "source of reductions of wages and capitalistic cheating" of workers (p. 553). That is, with piece-wages, the incentive is for the capitalist to parasitically "sub-let" labor by using the services of middlemen (subcontractors). In England this system is characteristically called the "Sweating system."

On the one hand piece-wage allows the capitalist to make a contract for so much per piece with the head laborer--in manufactures with the chief of some group, in mines with the extract of the coal, in the factory with the actual machine-worker--at a price for which the head laborer himself undertakes the enlisting and payment of his assistant workpeople (Marx, 1867: 554).

Piece-rate wage is a special form of influence, ubiquitous in the apparel industry, and becoming more popular as 1st world transnational firms relocate factories to China and other third world nations.  To Marx, it is in the personal interest of the subcontractor using piece-wage systems to "strain his labor-power as intensely as possible" by lengthening the working-day. IN short, sweatshop factory owners and managers do not believe that less terrorizing forms of influence will motivate high production and paying living wages is just not part of the equation.

And this is exactly what we have witnessed in apparel and other global enterprises: without the external influence/control of government or the global enterprise's influential policies and codes of conduct, subcontractors will use piece-wages setting quotas below living standards and extend the working day, as well as the number of days worked each month. 

How to influence and extend the working day? Fine people a day's wage if they do not clock in on time, subtract the costs of production, such as a broken sewing needle from paychecks; also subtract for any food, lodging, or benefits while confiscating identity cards or working with the police to make travel beyond the factory gate inadvisable.  

For Adam Smith the solution to sweatshops and sub-living wages was to influence capitalism with Moral Sentiments. 

Taylor (1911: 14-18) argued that it is possible to have prosperity for both owners and workers and the diminution of poverty and the alleviation of human suffering. For Taylor, the solution to feudalistic sweatshop factories was to convince/influence employee and employer, to demonstrate that through scientific experimentation, healthy work conditions and expertly-designed work processes -- workers would toiled fewer hours, with more rest breaks, and at higher pay and thereby gain efficiency, while the firm enjoyed the fruits of sharp increases in production. 

How can academics influence the conduct of sweatshops in the global economy? 45 academics just submitted a research proposal to test Smith's, Marx's, and Taylor's options in the apparel industry (Boje et al, 2000). That is to move from what is called "extreme Taylorism" managing work processes with central control and high division of labor, to what Taylor had originally described, a system of work which is productive for employers and prosperous for employees. And to what Smith described as a living wage and what Marx saw as a way to empower workers through active participation in worker democracy. Dare we think of moving beyond Taylorism to more post-Taylor work processes and condition where th individual is more important than the work system? 

We believe this is an attainable objective for global enterprise, its subcontractors, global workforce, customers, investors and other stakeholders. To better understand influence it is necessary to spend a bit of time to show the Tamara of narratives and theatrics that are played out on the global stage.

Global Theatric Influences - The sweatshop is a "Theater of Terror," a "House of Pain." As Marx observed the sweatshops in Europe and the U.S. he saw modern management as the "vampire" sucking every last drop of blood and life from living labor (1867: 233).  He observed that noble citizens joined the "Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals: while ignoring situations there workers were treated as beasts (p. 234).  He observed the "small thefts" for meal, recreation, and sleep time as well as the wage-cheating. "Children of nine or ten years are dragged from their squalid beds at two, three, or four o'clock in the morning and compelled to work for a bare subsistence until ten, eleven, or twelve at night, their limbs wearing away, their frames dwindling, their faces whitening, and their humanity absolutely sinking into a stone-like torpor, utterly horrible to contemplate" (1867: 243-4). The movement to establish shorter working hours was fought on behalf of children, then women, but men were left to toil at 16 and 18 hour days. And sweatshops does not refer to some work children still do. Millions of young females, in their teens and early twenties are sweated, and then terminated when the turn twenty three or four, or sooner if they become pregnant.  Excess worker is as Marx put it "the destroyer of the man" and he meant also the woman and the child (p. 256).  There are modern factories today, with the most high-tech equipment, whose management influence workers with the hunger and passion of the were-wolf and shut them away from sun light and fresh air, and work them unto death. 

The influences on sweatshops, the reason why it is such a sell-out performance throughout the world, is the unquestioned assumptions of pragmatic, utilitarian, and materialism. The assumption is that the influence of the vampire and were-wolf manager is the only profitable way to produce the goods that line the shelves at Wal-Mart, Footlocker, and most of the stores at the shopping mall. And if we opened the doors of the factories making the chicken McNuggets and Colonel Sanders' delights we would see slave management of of animal flesh. Few Animal Rights Society members seem to open these factory doors. It is pragmatic some say, it is part of the material wealth of consumer culture, or just the utilitarian creative pathway of destruction of the free market, our right.  But Adam Smith, the father of global capitalism, did not mean the free hand of the market was without ethics. Nor did Marx, the father of Political Economy, at least its greatest work, say in the sweat shop a "House of Terror, then an asylum for the poor, but now the workplace for the majority of the world's citizens (p. 276). The global subcontracting network is one gigantic network of Terror. And to make it work without resistance from consumers, requires some very shrewd spectacles, some dazzling lights and star performers to turn our capitalistic anthropology away from the brutalities behind closed factory doors. Spokesmen and spokeswomen are recruited from the PR, consulting and even business school to declare that there are no sweatshops anywhere. And increasingly the WTO protest is proof enough that the maneuver has not totally camouflaged the wolves.   The global enterprise clings to the letter of the wage and environment law in third world nations that are too weak to enforce such laws.  The university and stockholders too, send sub-inspectors to inspect the factories, and return with glowing reports, and the next day the real story gets told. 

To overcome shoppers' fear of tragedy, consultants, monitors, audits, and PR agents are hired by corporations and universities (with campus apparel in their book stores), to turn the theater's lights down, to move the spot light away from the third world performers, and focus instead upon athletic, movie, TV, and pop stars. When Tiger Woods takes the stage, who in the audience is aware of the pheasant stitching shoes, or the slave carrying the golf bag?  The postmodernists call into question, the metaphors of "sports hero" and "warfare" cries for "team sprit" and "national esprit de corps."  but the shopping mall theater goes are not dismayed. 

Monitoring of the apparel industry is an exercise in pseudo-reality, a charade, and masquerade ball that rivals national political conventions.  Where stars take the stage, and reporters with passes make appointments to hear the carefully scripted sound bites of designated interviewees at the convention hall. Calls for unity are greeted by thunderous applause.  

The spotlight is not a random inquirer. in the background of the apparel monitoring visit is the mumbling of the workers not selected for interviews, the groaning is muffled by the manager's pronouncements that all is well. And the monitor takes notes, looking exactly where the spot light shines and no where else. Now when Kathy Lee was found to have sweatshops in New York and then in China, Wal-Mart executives scurried to find monitors that would turn the spotlight in less sweaty directions. 

Klein, Naomi  (1999) No Logo : Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies  Picador (St. Martin's Press) USA; ISBN: 0312203438  (press here). This is a great book, tracking the ad strategies and camouflage of major corporations. What does Klein conclude about Nike? 

"There is no doubt that companies like Nike have learned that labor-rights abuses can cost them. But the spotlight being shined on these companies is both roving and random: it is able to shine down on a few corners of the global production line, but darkness still shrouds the rest.  Human rights, far from being protected by this process, are selectively respected: reforms seem to be implemented solely on the basis of where the spotlight's beam was last directed. There is absolutely no evidence that any of this reform activity is coalescing into a universal standard of ethical corporate behavior that will be applied around the world;' and no system of universal enforcement is on the horizon.

Instead, what we have with the proliferation of voluntary codes of conduct and ethical business initiatives is a haphazard and piecemeal mess of crisis management" (Klein, 2000: 434). 

In the audience the masters sit quietly  with the consumers to watch the play. In the rafters, Adam Smith, Karl Marx, and Frederick Taylor see past the spotlight, and are able to see systems and standards that would proscribe and influence more ethical corporate behavior. A few activist shine McSpot-lights, flash lights really, here and there on the stage, but that light is dampened by the brilliance of the PR light show, a spectacle to behold. Each time the spotlight moves to a well known actor, there is thunderous applause.  Sounds are heard, but they do not fit the plot being played out on this stage.  Noises are heard, but we can not make out the voices and do not know if the disturbances are necessary to this plot. Maybe some scene change is about to take place. This is a story of great and lesser influences.  It is titled the "Jeux de Verite" by some French play writer named Michel Foucault. The spot light moves and invites the audience's gaze to follow.  There are louder sounds that draw our attention away from the shadows. 

No Theater of Influence is complete without narrative. The narrative frames of Bureaucracy, Quest, and Postmodern have their "influence" on each of us.  Each has a different discourse, and takes the stage with a different cast of characters, but often they meet on the same stage.

Bureaucratic red tape, division of labor, the mechanistic clockwork of Taylorism and TQM would influence us to be mere cogs, to follow the program, to be programmed. This is undoubtedly mechanistic choreography, a spectacle of boredom.  Somewhere we traded security for COMPLIANCE. If we all just follow the program, then everything will be in order, it will all make rational sense, and life will be grant, so they say. This is a TAMARA with decidedly modern discourse rooms, but is also rooted in the feudal performances of church, state, and the old military storylines. Bureaucracy is also a source of stress in our present lives, putting delay after delay, signature after signature, layer after layer, rule after rule between us and our assigned agenda.  In the Taylor Bureaucracy, it means we are centrally administered, monitored, and our thinking does not count for much. Bureaucracy is also a tranquilizer, able to shut us away from risk. We believe those vision statements that adorn the office wall, put there by our romantic hero, our CEO who knows all, sees all, and will point the way. The bureaucratic narrative is a monologue, suspended in an infrastructure that can not copy with the increased traffic and the demand for a diversity of voices. We are influenced just to sit down in surrender to monologue, and mindlessly go through the motions of our day, our mind too numb too think about risk or hear any but the official voices. At the same time, bureaucracy helps us cope with the risk of getting it wrong, of actually doing anything that would break out of the status quo, or the risk of exposing the political hegemony for its nakedness. This influence keeps us running in place. Some say bureaucratic is the substance of our alienation, our declaration that it is all useless busywork; others say we can not live without it. We know the formal and official story of the bureaucratic does not capture our life space, so the quest beckons us when we hear a distant call to find our storyline.

Quest calls us to the journey, influencing us to leave our selfish and mundane life world and take companions with us to find our boon in some far away land and return with its light to transform our very self and our community. Joseph Campbell tells us that our journey is a mythical one, where we read into the events, the saga of our lives, and find some meaning to our existence, at least for a while. In quest, we are influenced by myth, to journey until we can stop and listen, and maybe hear the storyline of our lives. Since we live among so many storylines, we have too many to choose among. Along the questing way, as we tune into the mythic code of the events we encounter, and are busy seeking transcendental transformation, we are likely to trip on the rim of some abyss and may even fall into the realm of chaos. It is so unruly there, we long for the tranquility of bureaucracy.

 

"Unruly passengers can actually affect airline safety. A NASA study found that in 40% of 152 cases studied, pilots either left the cockpit to deal with a disturbance [e.g. a passenger who just goes out of control] or were interrupted by flight attendants who needed help. In one-quarter of those cases, the pilots subsequently reported committing errors such as flying too fast or going to the wrong altitude" (Thompson, 2000: 2A).

Chaos influences us by letting us glimpse the random forces that spill out of the abyss, the ones that bureaucracy is unable to control. The idea that we can manage chaos is the biggest myth of all. For chaos is everywhere, but not always seen. Yet, turn the lights out in Los Angeles, and in this over-crowded city, you will see that anything goes. Every once in a while, we see chaos by daylight, the craziness all around us turns visible, and we hurriedly seek some complex pattern that will make sense of that which just self-organizes, seemingly immune to our influence, but influencing us at every turn. Can engineering keep the lid on Pandora's box? In chaos, there is no grand mythic to make sense of it all, it is just the stuff of tragedy reminding us that the events are more powerful than we will ever be and no romantic hero will save this day. In chaos and complexity we are aware of the stress of our multi-tasking lives, the speeding up of work and play and amid the chaos we encounter the casualties. The actors in the chaos play, are unaware that chaos simmers beneath the surface, just out of sight, until a triggering event makes it all boil over. We see the boil in the face of the postal worker going "postal" and wonder if being out of control is part of the condition of chaos? We see it in the faces of those parents at their children's soccer matches, that at any moment may leap onto the field and punch out the referee. This is why the National association of Sports Officials has to offer assault insurance to its 19,000 members (Thompson, 2000: 2A). We live in collapsed time and space, the speeding up of the economy of play and work, with so much multi-tasking that terror is in the terror looms. Excuse me I must take a call on the cell phone, while I respond to email in one window, write this in the next, and think about my complicity in the toil of Chinese factory workers in my garment choices, on my mental screen. "Cell phones, pagers and high tech devices allow us to be interrupted anywhere, at any time" (Thompson, 2000: 2A). And for some, that next interruption is the last straw. In scattered events of violence committed by postal and other workers and managers, customers and vendors, spectators at sporting events, we are witnesses to increased rude and selfish behavior, rats in an over-crowded world. Parent compete like rats in a maze for fewer and fewer athletic scholarship to pay for university education that becomes more and more expensive, making a child's soccer game into an arena of potential violence. Our lives are turning chaotically violent, into some World Federation Wrestling spectacle, an arena of terror and we and our children are in the iron cage with the Gravedigger.

An America West flight from Orlando to Las Vegas made an emergency landing in Albuquerque after a passenger became combative and had to be restrained by the crew. Carlos Jesus Chairez, 46, of Longwood, Florida was talking loudly, and when another passenger asked him to be quiet, he became enraged. An FBI report said Chairez punched one passenger, choked another, and wrangled with airline personnel. Federal agents arrested the suspect when the plane landed in New Mexico (Enraged Passenger).

The USA TODAY/CNN/Gallup Poll found 78% of Americans "believe rude and selfish behavior has increased at highways and airports. An 79% say the number of people who get angry at the bad behavior of others has grown" (Peterson, 2000: 2A). Chaos crowds too many events in too little time, and asks that we accept mathematical algorithms to make sense of the self-organizing boil. A few chaos and complexity experts, searching for hidden causes of those going ballistic in the age of rage, blame the postmodernists. Surely some Universalist code of ethics inscribed in stone, now shattered by postmodern ethicists, would give us an influence-compass to keep all our impulses under control. Ben Franklin for example, had his virtues, which served to guide his choices and influence the development of his character. David has his Healthy, Happy Terrific Philosophy. The point is that for some, the ethical virtues are a way for the individual to set some limits on the chaos and seek a life space not circumscribed by the bureaucratic discourse. 

Postmodern is our mystery condition, the product of the stress of late global capitalism and hyper-modern technology (biotech, robotic, and virtual) mixed in a cultural cocktail of synthetic and ironic heroes migrating from sports to adorn our garments and minds, and thus influencing us to join in simulacra. To be an INDIVIDUAL is not so easy. Stress is the signature of not only the chaotic, but also the postmodern condition, one in which there are so many fragments to craft into individual identities, once you unplug from the tube and the monitor. I have unplugged from the TV world, but  I wake each morning to find 50 to 100 and some days more email than I can answer in a workday. I am the only person I know without a cell phone; I am sure my quality of life will not be improved by given everyone in the world uninterrupted access. I am already on email overload and work overload unable to bound the demands of writing, teaching, and other university work into anything like an eight hour day, or a five day week; instant communication, email, and telecommuting mean I can work 70, 80, and 100 hours each week.  Still in some sense my web life has replaced my TV life, and I am still plugged into the MATRIX.  What happened to the 8 hour day? Stress from over-accessibility, multi-tasking, and too many swirling fragmented encounters, is an epidemic in global capitalism, and proof says the postmodernists that not all technology and not all science is the source of progress. 

We are already in the Matrix, unable to unplug our mind from the violence of high-tech, webbed circuitry numbing us to the terror in a bombardment of advertising charades, e-commerce promises of virtual-utopian commerce, and instant access via the World Wide Web (now available with cellular access to satellite) of all to all in any time and place. We do not need some movie to tell us most have already surrendered to the illusion of media spectacle. We (I) need to learn how to unplug, to meditate more and take a few more breaks in life.  Why do we not have those long vacations that the French enjoy? 

Trapped in the Matrix -- Reality morphs before our eyes, and it its fragmentation, we choose this chard and that element to craft our postmodern identities, but rarely do we self-reflect long enough to question the Matrix, to see if the high-tech, biotech, virtual spectacle influences add to our enlightenment (See Debord's work on this). The truncated storyline presented to us in the age of advertising is that commodities, especially brand-ones with chic logos will make us happy. The next step is we believe the ads, and believe we are entitled to a life of materialism and over-consumption. Do your children think life should be easy?  Why question advertisings' influence; why follow the Alice in Wonderland rabbit on a quest of discovery? The rabbit is just some postmodern deconstructionist who pops out of the rabbit hole long enough to challenge our commodity castle, saying "it is born on the backs of the starving peasants" and "we are under the influence of media conglomerates, playing us like slot machines" and poof, the rabbit disappears. Maybe learning to meditate while waiting in line for our food, the traffic light to change, the bank teller to return from lunch, the airport ticket taker to call our row number -- is all there is. Without self-control, we succumb to the impulse of shopping rage, road warrior-ness, bank-line terror, and airport rudeness. The ability to deal with over-crowding, long lines, and people who go postal on us require survival skills for our 21st century. In the postmodern world we are witness to "a general breakdown of social conventions, of manners, of social controls" (Thompson, 2000: 2A). A world in which the vulgarity and terror, where over-stressed people go into rage on a Jerry Springer show, appears to make sense to its spectators. We have accelerated change, collapsed time and space, over-crowded the planet, lost our privacy, and entered a century where spectacle-consumers do not take responsibility for the spectacle itself.

 

Bureaucratic, quest, chaos, and postmodern narrative frames are inter-laced, intermingling, and interpenetrating narratives that influence our lives. They suspend us between the contingencies of events and the never-ending web of stories. This is where we begin our inquiry into influence?  and this managing and organizing is permeated with stakeholder influence.

What is Stakeholder Influence? - We are influenced by many stakeholders? What is a stakeholder if not a web of managing and organizing influences?

... the concept of "stakeholder" denotes in the first place the management and employees of the firm; in the second place it denotes those whom it buys its services and goods; in the third place it denotes its owners, the shareholders; in the fourth place it denotes the unions; in the fifth place it denotes the lawmaking institutions and those that regulate it in the service of the public. Finally it also denotes nature, the voiceless mammals, the whole organic and inorganic world of used and still unused resources, to which a voice must be ascribed. Finally it denotes the future (Kirkeby, 2000: 58).

As a postmodernist I very much appreciate Kirkeby's attention to the voiceless world of plants and animals. Kirkeby's approach to stakeholders also gives attention to power, how a web of stakeholders network to influence one another and the events that interconnect them from different value positions. 

For example, I spend a good deal of time study how grass-roots groups network together to affect subcontractors who manufacture goods for the apparel industry, to influence the reform of sweatshop-working conditions, toxic-environmental and other choices made by transnational corporations selling to consumers unaware or unconcerned about their own complicity in such a Matrix. It is a web of events in which influence is taking place at the intersection of bureaucratic monologues of denial and promises of reform, quests to find transcendental codes of conduct that will put the situation in control, small chaotic events that trigger news media storms and consumer awareness, and postmodern calls to hear the unheard voices of women doing the sweat-work, and even calls to hear the voices of voiceless mother earth.  Influence is about making events happen, altering the ones underway, and telling sorties about events that legitimate leaders' paychecks. 

What is an event? If we seek to influence, then what is it we are trying to influence if not some event, course of events, or a web of events?  Kirkeby (2000: 218) asks do we have the ability to influence an event at all?; what is it to be inside or outside an event?  Events intersect in time and space, with histories, physical parameters, horizons of possibility, and many other contextual layers (p. 220).  

A market is a complex event and so is the web of events that make up the Internet. We follow stock reports on their trajectories forming a web with other stocks, influenced by media reports that send the trading floor into a frenzy to make the prices right. 

A phenomenology of the event can show that there are events with an absolute negative content, yielding absolutely no happiness and not even experiences worthy to be called "human," as is seen during wars adn terror. On the other hand there are also utterly happy events that appear to grant "welfare" to anybody involved. But most events shall probably constitute a mixture (Kirkeby, 2000: 228). 

The military leader, even the politician (though none recently) somehow transforms a tragic event, a genuine catastrophe that seems to have no happy ending possible, into a rallying cry for solidarity, perseverance, and conquest.  The leader labels one "event" a necessary or unfortunate sacrifice that is necessary to bring deliverance to the survivors, and "poof," the tragic event structure is transformed into a tale of heroic and romantic journey, the conquest influencing followers to the cause. Some are bureaucratic followers who surrender their fear of change, others are eager to join a quest, some see a path out of the chaos, and the postmodernists, what do they know of leadership?  There is something important about a leader's ability to command influence in the face of chaotic events, event events that have disputed meanings, where all are arguing about the map, but to understand it requires we know the concept of influence and its relation to storytelling a bit better.

The Concept called "Influence" -  Influence surrounds us and yet is exercise is hard to grasp. Figuring out and tracing a chain of events so we can influence the events is how managers spend most of their time. What is the significance of this new event for career, company, and community? What are the hidden costs and the unseen lines of causality in this choice? We are influenced by past, present and future. Influence is about power over other stakeholders, and time. But it is not clear which stakeholder has power and which has no influence over events and how our anticipated influence of complex or even simple events will turn out.  We are born into stories of a past we have never lived, asking why am I here, where did I come from? If you own 50% of the stock you have more influence than when you are the "1,235th shareholder" (Kirkeby, 2000: 218). In the present, we experience the immediacy of unfolding events, whose course and outcome have not cohered into an easy storyline we can use to make sense of it all.   Our future is a storytellers' promise of what will be the fruit of out plans, or organizing, ur attempts at influence, our enrollment in some leader's grand vision, and our own imaginings about being able to control what has yet to unfold. 

Can we influence chaotic events, catastrophic events that spin out of our control?  If we are one stakeholder in a playing field that is global, with millions of others, then do we have influence?  If a powerful stakeholder conceal its presence from our view, then do we know what is influencing events, even our own actions?  The very definition of hegemony is an exercise in influence of one stakeholder over another, that goes unseen, unnoticed, totally concealed, even accepted as mere commonsense.  

Events are complex, and chaotic. when you web together humans, machines, buildings, technologies and information into organized behavior, you get some interesting influence patterns that may not always be so routine, predictable, or tranquil. We use planning, organizing, leadership, and control to influence events and map what we think are visible and hidden causal patterns.   Yet it is all so interconnected, and a trivial event can trigger all kinds of storm. In the biotech age, we seem to be influencing life itself, the Matrix of Genomes are becoming sensible so that we think nothing of crossing a potatoes and fish gene structure to create some new hybrid, that is both and neither. 

 

TAMARA -  If events were all there was, mechanistic science would still be king.  But events are interpenetrated with story, so the Tamara-ish process of making sense calls forth the narrator.  Yet in Tamara-land there are many narrator, and we no longer trust that the official's tale of the events and the web of hidden causes is as valid as the many informal stories that circulate in contradiction to the executive's account. It is part of our socialization to accept the the managers story as the author-ized account of what is really going on, the masters' right to decide what is the truth and story of the events.  Indeed it is the leader's role to be THE storyteller of the organization; to anser the question "what really happened?"  The manager reconstructs for us all the causal interconnects that emerged and transformed us into an event.  All of a sudden, we the employees, the consumers, suppliers, and managers are inside the storied and now official narrative of some event.  Yet in TAMARA, the organization as a theater of many stages, with wandering and fragmenting audiences splitting off to see the performances in many corporate rooms, corridors, and even virtual meeting places, no one person, not even the CEO, can visit all the stages, certainly not see the action that is simultaneous on many floors, in many buildings, across many nets.  Yet, the CEO is the least likely to loose the contest of TAMARA interpretations, but this rule is frequently disproved. 

Next I would like to intersect work by Kirkeby (2000) who skillfully defines Four voices and set these in the context of the play, Tamara, which I have written about before (1995). 

TAMARA-LAND and the  FIRST, SECOND. THIRD, and FOURTH VOICE

First - there was one voice -In bureaucratic theater, there is mostly monologue; other voices are there on the stage but forbidden to speak, or they can only be whispered, their words unhearable, drowned out by the one official narrator who is authorized to take center-stage and speak and speak some more. As Kirkeby (2000: 232) argues it is the right of power to baptize the event, to declare it a romantic, tragic, comedic, or ironic event and then of course make it into a romantic one that fits the bureaucratic pension for influence. For any other voice to speak would be an act of bureaucratic espionage; certainly for the secretary to speak would be unthinkable rebellion. Yet few bureaucratic theaters of organization are so totalitarian these days. Still there are glass ceiling on this stage.  Let the CEO recount the "true" and public version of the event. He is the authorized storyteller. Let him take the stage and speak about cost-cutting, down-sizing, and the need to keep all in control. The hero is this CEO and the villain is the sloth labor, the wasteful apprentice, the agitating unionist, those misinformed environmentalists. With the transformation of this event, the day is saved, but tomorrow an other event will present itself for interpretation, and new heroes and villains will be narrated by the monologic CEO. "The real leader shall keep the event open to interpretation" (Kirkeby, 2000: 236). It is best not to fix the lines of connection too solidly, ore paint the villains in too dramatic a way, the press will release a new report tomorrow or the day after. Ask the CEO of Monsanto, Shell, McDonald's or Nike, they know this practice of influence quite well. A good leader controls and influences the regime of truth. "He must be ready to overrule and redeem any identity that seems proper to the event" (p. 237). they know that "events cannot be controlled by creating stories at the level of deliberate decisions, however carefully planned and shaped through vision" p. 238). By how do they know this without listening to other voices? 

Second - there were two voices - In the Quest two or more players take the stage, but it is rarely more than dialog.  In dialogue the "I" and the "Other" take the stage and we hear voices, but little reflection.  It is no longer the monologue of the I declaring the Other as villain. The Other gets to speak and be heard by the 'I."  There are also silent voices, present because we know there is a calling, someone has placed the events into a non-random order, a journey of discovery, in which the I encounters the Other and some learning takes place. Pe There are so many more consultants running about these days with workshops on dialog, how to make the bureaucracy into a conversation, but it is still just the two voices, the First and now the Second. 

Third - there were three voices - To me, this voice that Kirkeby describes is the same one discovered long ago by Adam Smith. Smith looked at global capitalism and say that without ethics events might well follow a logic of the market place that would not lead to ethical relations among buyer and seller, employer and employed, monopolist and entrepreneur. It is the internal spectator, the voice that speaks to us while observing the First and Second (the I and the Other) rehearse there dialogue on the stage in our mind's eye. And in this model, even two actors on the stage visualize the dialogue of the Triad in their own head, but as well in the head of the other.  Game theorists love such a model,  Two beings in my head (each a Triad of First, Second, and Third) --- knowing that you are viewing me from your Triad.  From this Third voice comes our ethical conscience, our attempt to self-reflect on our dialog and action of self and to see how the Other views us (most likely). As Adam Smith wrote the Wealth of Nations, he also wrote the Moral Sentiments, and forever wedded ethics and economics. Is the meaning of an event always transcendental, related to the secrets of the Fourth voice?  This leader is "utterly sensitive to traces" the footprints of the Third voice are in the details of each event, if can read their chaotic lines a bit more clearly using our moral compass. 

Fourth - then there were four voices -  This is a very special voice, one we sense is about to speak but does not, one that is on the stage but stays in the shadows. In the Fourth, "the event is never over and done with" (Kirkeby, 2000: 237). And with the about to speak voice of the Fourth, we are intuitively aware of the simulation and almost can here the polyphony of voices, a mob about to take storm the stage. We may hear a groan, a murmur, a mumbling sound, but we can never quite make out the words. We can sense somehow the bureaucratic machine, the quest journey, and even chaos itself are just mythic metaphors some people have speculated and articulated about the web of human events (web is yet another one, as it theater a metaphor).   We sense the gap, and we know with one more step we will certainly fall into chaos. There are fragmented sounds, and a deep sense that we are being haunted by a spirit. And we do not know yet if it is friend or foe. This is actually we think an existential gap (Cooper and Burrell, 1988: 108). It is something beyond the ability of the bureaucrat to program to control.  The Fourth voice beckons us to listen to the Third voice about the the ethics of our strategies, aims, and obligations.  But the Fourth, lets the Third voice speak of universal values, virtues, and absolutes. Postmodernists read their ethics into each situation a new, but also into the web of relationships of competing ethics.  The Fourth voice is in the land of the pre-narrative, a story hat has yet to be told, a coherence that has not been constructed, and an event that is not yet.  We may feel the bureaucrat is without clothes simply doing PR, the quest travelers can almost imagine this is an offer of liberation that will imprison, or the tragedy of  chaotic events is being manipulated but we do not know how. The postmodernist can see more contingency than pattern, more arbitrary links than pre-ordained ones, more pseudo romantic leadership than ethical calling.   These pre-narrations almost posit a story line, but not one we believe with any confidence. The Fourth voice is a postmodern one, critical, skeptical, and ready to speak but can not put words to the music. It asks who dares call this organization a theater, and who speaks about this plot?  Who is the author of the dialog, who sets the stage, and who rehearses the actors in their lines?   

References

Kirkeby, Ole Fogh (2000) Management Philosophy: A radical-normative perspective. Berlin: Springer. 

Peterson, Karen S. (2000). "Why everyone is so short-tempered." USA Today Tuesday, July 18th, A1, A2).

Next we look at how this plays out in there intersecting and all very much present discourses. We do not see pre, mod, and post as moments in some time line.  Rather, there are some historical roots, and some nostalgic recreations that make all three quite present today. Think about the interplay when you attend that next graduation. Those black robes are as pre-modern as the Chancellor's stick and the fraternity's and sorority's initiation rituals. The modern university is full of bureaucratic red tape, signatures galore, and a time march that influences our steps across that theatric stage.  Postmodern, is not a university a place to find one's individual voice, to be a bit rebellious, and to get involved in ecological and other movements that might tame the global enterprise and its appetite for rainforest, cheap female labor, and spectacle. 

 

PRE-MODERN INFLUENCE

INTRODUCTION

Pre-modern influence features a fraternal culture with peer influence. Religion affects attitude. Individuals fight laziness and seek to develop an entrepreneurial spirit in the face of feudalistic bureaucracy where promotion is by who you know, not by your skills. Feudal people have deference to authority and their masters do not consider influence much beyond the whip and rack. Premod demonstrations of hangings and the rack are enough to get tourists to behave. A little flogging in Singapore is still quite instructive to gum chewers. Modern influence utilizes scientific management, behavioral science and human relations to achieve compliance. Yield, obey, conform are the watchwords. Postmodern influence focuses on the individual with self-affirmation and self-discipline. But the self is not isolated. The self is one of many stakeholders, and a dialogue of many voices (See the Four).  Sensitivity to a variety of voices is stressed. But, for premodern times, there is the voice of the Eternal and some people who sit as Kings, Queens, and as Religious Authorities. In modern bureaucracy it is pretty much the monologue.  Though consultants galore try to make it into a dialog with discourse training in how to listen to the "Other" or to make it appear so. In multiple stakeholder networks we find participation, fragmentation and diversity which avoids categories. If I grow up in a country not my own, but speak its language and forget the language of my parents -- who am I?  Woven throughout a postmodern approach is a value for feelings and emotions. How to listen to inner voices and to hear the voices of the voiceless animals and plant? As our friend Bob Gephart puts it "who speaks for the trees?"  Who speaks for the animals? One of the critical questions here, is are people more or less empowered with postmodern influence? Is there empowerment with out some material power? 

 

Pre-modern influence is solace. Solace, order, lazy, attitude, culture, entrepreneurial. In pre-modern stories, influence was accomplished by the craft culture where journeymen could vote in fines ("Solaces"). God was more alive before modern technology. Sin, virtue, and attitude told the story of a man's influence. Despite the influence of guild and religion, people retained a more entrepreneurial and self-reliant spirit. though Weber finds the Protestant's a bit more industrious with their work ethics (a finding widely disputed). 

Pre-modern influence is ubiquitous in American society. Pre-mod is not dead. Fraternities and sororities, for example, influence actives (full fledged members) to initiate pledges with rituals acts of influence, such as interviews, fetching and carrying for the actives, reciting Greek texts, and instilling that special Greek character through all manner of influence that has been passed from upper to lower classman since the origin of fraternities in the late 1700's. Phi Beta Kappa, was the first Greek-letter fraternity with secret handshakes, mottoes, and rituals. On December 5, 1776, the College of William and Mary started a system that has spread its secret influences around the world. The National Interfraternity Conference in Indianapolis, represents 400,000 mean in 5,300 chapters on 800 campuses in the United States and Canada. Pledges are always influenced more by what they see rather than the stories they are told. Brothers and sisters have a duty to "get to know" pledges and to develop the pledges sense of brotherhood or sisterhood. Pledges are reviewed, evaluated, and voted upon from the beginning to the end of the pledge process. Traditions of chivalry, unity, ritual, and community

Brothers and sisters are influenced to be enthusiastic members and righteous representatives of a chapter. Pledges are initiated and grilled to keep the secrets of the chapter and show proper respect to the chapter and its initiated members. Through constant supervision and coaching, the pledge is influence to smooth off the rough edges and develop character worthy of chapter initiation.

Fraternities and sororities are also bureaucratic in their influence, with executive committees, steering committees, chapter advisors and moderators, and extensive charters with rules and policies to influence all facets of the pledges and actives life space. Fraternities and sororities are influenced by the interfraternal council as well as their faculty moderators and advisors.

Boj: Bob, I could tell you about the secret rituals of initiation in my fraternity, but then I'd have to shoot you.

Pre-modern influence is found to this day in churches, universities, military organizations (especially boot camp), Toastmasters, Alcoholics Anonymous, courts, and even the Congress of the United States. Each has a sense of more senior people bringing along the new comers to be influenced to become upstanding members of their organization. These are strong cultures with numerous rituals, ceremonies, and historical traditions to influence their members.

Here are our stories.

Boje did a study of the printing industry for years and years. If such material is not for you, skip ahead.

PRINTING APPRENTICESHIP STORIES:

The Compositors Wore Swords

They were fond of impressing the newly entered apprentices with the advantage they held over mere tradesmen and artisans in belonging to so ancient and honorable a calling as that of printing: telling them that "in olden time, when none but the privileged classes were permitted to go armed, the compositors wore swords by their sides" (being gentlemen by virtue of their art, and because the first compositor was a knight) and sat at case, to mark the distinction between themselves and ordinary mechanics, who stand to their work.1

 

The Father of the Chapel

The Chappelonians walk three times round the room, their right arms being put thro' the lappets of their coats; The boy who is to be made a Cuz carrying a wooden sword before them. Then the Boy kneels, and the Father of the Chapel [the oldest freeman], after exhorting him to be observant of his business, and not to betray the secrets of the Workmen, squeezes a sponge of strong beer over his head, and gives him a title, ...Whilst the boy is upon his knees, all the Chappelonians... walk round him, saying the Cuz's anthem, which is done by adding all the vowels to the consonants.2

Instruments of the Chapel Ceremony

The Chapel was a system of discipline, initiation, and drinking that the journeymen and apprentice maintained from the 1600's to the early 1900's. "The Chapel cannot err...for the good of the Chapel" (Avis, 1971: 27; Boje, 1983: 10). Chapels collected fines for incorrect behavior, birthdays, weddings, and spent the money on drink and to support brethren who were out of work. Unemployed brethren were entitled to food and lodging, if they could verify Chapel membership in another town.3 Those who failed their apprenticeship in a Chapel could be excommunicated. In the 1800's Germany abolished the Chapel by law, since it encouraged drinking and its initiations were considered bizarre. The 1600's rite of passage to journeyman included the apprentice, two godfathers, and a priest for the ceremony (often the master/owner of the shop). In this ceremony, there was an axe, plane, saw, compass, grape stripper, tooth extractor, fox tail and bells. Other ceremonies included soaking the journeyman in baptismal fashion. "Every printer defends himself, but is proud when the ceremony is over and is duty bound to buy a drink for each of the brethren." In the "Kissing the Bookbinder's Daughter" ceremony of the 1800's, the apprentice's face, neck, and head were massaged with glue by means of brushes and a plentiful supply of white shavings, after a gob of paste had been applied to his mouth. He was then held upside down in a bin of white wastepaper to complete the ritual. 4

Ben Franklin Visited by Ralph, the Ghost

A "solace" is a rule voted in by the journeymen, such as "no swearing" or "do not leave the candle burning." Ben Franklin refused to pay his solace bill to the Chapel and was visited by "Ralph," a unfriendly ghost. Ralph pi-ed(mixed up or dropped) Ben's type.5

Deconstruction of the Chapel Ceremony Stories.

1. Adaptations of Religious Categories. Each ceremony is a stylized adaptation of a medieval age church ceremony to people's role in the technology of their craft. Words like Chapel, Priest, Baptismal, Altar are examples of the adaptation of Church language to business. There is also an adaptation of the technology: words like chase, cuz, bookbinder, paper-board, pi-ed...

2. Discipline. Any journeyman could call a Chapel meeting to vote in a new fine called a "solace." A solace was imposed to enforce a shop rule such as no swearing, no fighting, do not leave your candle burning.6 Remember the craftsmen, as bizarre as these initiations and punishments may seem, were in fact exercising self-discipline. You were disciplined by your peers when you practiced poor work quality. The Chapel discipline mirrored school discipline where master teachers taught their lessons to obedient students. Anyone refusing to pay, could be taken by force and laid on his belly across the correcting-stone, while his brethren applied a paper-board to his buttocks.7

3. Community of Influence. The printer was influenced by the community in which s/he apprenticed to become a journeyman and master. The ritual of the Chapel was the center of their informal influence.

Ben had  PMA! Perhaps no one sought more to discipline his thinking and PMA than Benjamin Franklin. According to his autobiography, Franklin wanted to control his habits by focusing his mind on the best possible virtues. Franklin was following the advice of Pythagoras in his Golden Verses, which advocated a daily examination of one's virtues.

THE BEN FRANKLIN STORY:

PRE-MODERN MAN

Some say that restoring the virtues (Ben's or others is a way to put some brakes on the postmodern condition of fragmentation, over-work, over-consumption, and shiftless identity).  Others argue that even a postmodernist can pursue ethical positions while denying universalist codes.

Franklin made up a book to record his meditations.

"I ruled each page with red ink, so as to have seven columns, one for each day of the week, marking each column with a letter for the day. I crossed these columns with thirteen red lines, marking the beginning of each line with the first letter of one of the virtues, on which line, and in its proper column, I might mark, by a little black spot, every fault I found upon examination to have been committed respecting that virtue up on that day" (Hill and Stone, p. 125).

Since there are 13 virtues and 13 times 4 = 52, Franklin could also dwell on one virtue for an entire week, and be able to cycle through his list four times a year. Each week he could look at ways to build that virtue. In this way Benjamin Franklin worked in a very self-disciplined way to modify his own attitudes. Here is a list of his virtues and the chart he used to keep his mind focused on PMA.

Table 4.2: BEN FRANKLIN'S 13 ATTITUDES

 

 

BEN FRANKLIN'S 13 ATTITUDES

1. Temperance: Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation.

2. Silence: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation.

3. Order: Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time.

4. Resolution: Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve.

6. Frugality: Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself, that is, waste nothing.

7. Industry: Lose no time; be always employed in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions.

7. Sincerity: Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly.

8. Justice: Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty.

9. Moderation: Avoid extremes; forebear-resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.

10. Cleanliness: Tolerate no uncleanness in body, clothes, or habitation.

11. Tranquility: Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents, common or unavoidable.

12. Chastity: Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation.

13. Humility: Imitate Jesus and Socrates.

 

Table 4.3:  Ben's Virtues

 

VIRTUE TO FOCUS ON THIS WEEK: Temperance

"Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation."

 

 

Daily Inventory:

Sun

Mon

Tues

Wed

Thur

Fri

Sat

1. Temperance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Silence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Order

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Resolution

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Frugality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Industry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Sincerity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Justice

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Moderation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. Cleanliness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11. Tranquility

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. Chastity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13. Humility

 

 

 

 

 

 

The point is not to use Ben's virtues (they are OK), but to craft one's own in the postmodern world.  Others have crafted different virtues.  In business, the PMA movement still flourishes.

Self-Influence & Discipline. Success for the pre-modernist begins with Positive Mental Attitude (PMA). Norman Vincent Peale, in his book: The Power of Positive Thinking (1952) reflects the pre-modern influence when he recommends people memorize these quotations to establish more PMA mind conditioning:

TIVE MENTAL ATTITUDES

* As he thinketh in his heart, so is he.

* If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth.

* Lord, I believe; help Thou mine unbelief!

* I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me.

* If ye have faith... nothing shall be impossible unto you.

* According to your faith be it unto you.

* Faith without works is dead.

* What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them.

* If God be for us, who can be against us?

* Ask and it shall be given you; seek and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.

Can people think their way to success? Pre-modern man made it a habit to pray and seek the happiness that flows from PMA. "If your thinking is wrong, it is wrong and not right and can never be right so long as it is wrong" (p. 210). You are what you think.

Direct Your Thoughts with PMA

to Control Your Emotions

and to

Ordain Your Destiny

Source: Napoleon Hill & W. Clement Stone 9

If you focus your mind on the goals you want to achieve and write those goals down, you are more likely to achieve those goals. If you focus your mind on your fears and worries, then what you fear will come to pass. In short, pre-modern belief is the mind attracts or repels your success and failures. To discipline your mind, discipline your thoughts. Use self-talk and self-affirmations to program your mind for success.

 

* Do it Now!

* Please God help me write!

* I am Enthusiastic!

* They want to hear what I have to say.

* To be enthusiastic, act Enthusiastic!

* That which you Share with Others will Multiply!

* Whatever the Mind of Man can Conceive and Believe, it can Achieve through PMA!

* I can do this!

Sow a thought, reap an action.

Sow an action, reap a habit.

Sow a habit, reap a character.

Sow a character, reap a destiny! 10

 

How can you be enthusiastic? To be enthusiastic, ACT enthusiastic! "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm" (Abraham Lincoln).

Table 4.4: How to ACT Enthusiastically!

 

How to ACT Enthusiastically!

1. Talk loudly! This is particularly necessary if you are emotionally upset, if you are shaking inside when you stand before an audience, if you have "butterflies in your stomach."

2. Talk rapidly! Your mind functions more quickly when you do. You can read two books with greater understanding in the time you ow read one if you concentrate and read with rapidity.

3. Emphasize! Emphasize important words, words that are important to you or your listening audience-a word like you, for example.

4. Hesitate! When you talk rapidly, hesitate where there would be a period, comma, or other punctuation in the written word. Thus you employ the dramatic effect of silence. The mind of the person who is listening catches up with the thoughts you have expressed. Hesitation after a word which you wish to emphasize accentuates the emphasis.

5. Keep a smile in your voice!

Thus in talking loudly you eliminate gruffness. You can put a smile in your voice by putting a smile on your face, a smile in your eyes.

6. Modulate! This is important if you are speaking for a long period. Remember, you can modulate both pitch and volume. You can speak loudly and intermittently change to a conversational tone and a lower pitch if you wish.

7. Butterflies. When the butterflies stop flying around in your stomach, you can then speak in an enthusiastic, conversational tone of voice. 11

Boje has this one that graces the back of his business card. 

The Healthy, Happy, Terrific Story

Jerry Asam has PMA. And Jerry Asam loves his work. He finds satisfaction in his job.

Who is Jerry Asam? What does he do?

Jerry is a descendant of the Hawaiian kings. The job he loves so much is that of sales manager for the Hawaiian office of a large organization.

Jerry loves his work because he knows his work well and is very proficient in it. Thus, he is doing what comes naturally. But even so, Jerry had days when things could be a little rosier. In sales work, days like this can be disturbing---if one does not study, think and plan to correct difficulties and to maintain a tive mental attitude. So Jerry reads inspirational, self-help action books.

Jerry had read such inspirational books and learned three very important lessons:

1. You can control your mental attitude by the use of self-motivators.

2. If you set a goal, you are more apt to recognize things that will help you achieve it than if you don't set a goal. And the higher you set your goal, the greater will be your achievement if your have PMA.

3. To succeed in anything, it is necessary to know the rules and understand how to apply them. It is necessary to engage in constructive thinking, study, learning and planning time with regularity.

Jerry believed these lessons. He got into action. He tried them out himself. He studied his company's sales manuals, and practices whet he learned in actual selling. He set his goals---high goals---and achieved them. And each morning he said to himself: "I feel healthy! I feel happy! I feel terrific!" And he did feel healthy, happy, and terrific. And his sales results were terrific too!

When Jerry was sure he himself was proficient in his sales work, he gathered about himself a group of salesmen and taught them the lessons he had learned. He trained the men in the latest and best selling methods as set forth in his company's training manuals. He took them out personally and demonstrated how easy it is to sell if one uses the right methods, has a plan, and approaches each day with a positive mental attitude. He taught them to set high sales goals and to achieve them with PMA.

Every morning Jerry's group meets and recites enthusiastically, in unison: "I feel healthy! I feel happy! I feel terrific!" They laugh together, slap one another on the back for good luck, and each one goes his way to sell his quota for the day... They know that what the mind of man can conceive and believe, the mind of man can achieve with PMA...

"I feel healthy! I feel happy! I feel terrific!" Another young salesman in the same organization on the mainland learned to control his mental attitude through the use of Jerry Asam's self-motivator. He was an eighteen-year-old college student who was working during his summer vacation selling insurance on a cold-canvas basis in stores and offices. Some of the things he had learned... In your moment of need, use self-motivators such as I feel healthy! I feel happy! I feel terrific to motivate yourself to positive action in the desired direction....

By Friday night of that week, he had succeeded in making eighty sales---twenty short of his target. The young salesman was determined that nothing would stop him from achieving his objective.... Although the other salesmen in his group closed their week's work on Friday night, he was back on the job early Saturday morning.

By three o'clock in the afternoon, he hadn't made a sale. He had been taught that sales are contingent upon the attitude of the salesman---not the prospect.

He remembered the Jerry Asam self-motivator and repeated it five times with enthusiasm. I feel healthy! I feel happy! I feel terrific! About eleven o'clock that night he was tired, but he was happy! He had made his twentieth sale for the day! He had hit his target! He had won the award and learned that failure can be turned into success by---keeping on trying. 1

 

Boj's Story. I was taught the I feel healthy! I feel happy! I feel terrific! self-motivator by Richard Chavez, of the Chavez Training Institute in Los Angeles. Richard is a polio victim who lives his life in a wheel chair during the day and in an iron lung at night. He is not physically healthy; he is mentally healthy. After learning this self-motivation and teaching it to people in my business, our personnel agency sales tripled within two months. I have been teaching the self-motivators to others ever since then. He visited my class one year and was voted best speaker of the year, and it was quite a list of speakers that year.  My contribution is explaining what the three phases mean.

Deconstructing: I feel healthy, I feel happy, I feel terrific.

The H.H.T. story has themes, motives, values, purposes, motifs, dichotomies, dualism, relationships, scripts, scenarios, and recipes that we can interpret, deconstruct, and expose. Here are a few. You generate your own deconstructions.

1. The Power of Positive Thinking. Positive thinking (PMA) is a theme in the stories that contains a dualism and a recipe. If you think Positive, you get more success than if you think negative. Therefore, underneath the story, man is struggling with the opposing forces of negative and positive, bad and good, devil and God, sinful and rightful thinking. For Jerry, he was able to negative his negative thoughts. Jerry's day could be rosier, there were difficulties, but instead of surrender, he set out to correct the difficulties, maintain his PMA in the midst of negativity and he did this by using self-motivators. The power of PMA is the power to deconstruct and reconstruct mental experience and to rescue a positive voice that is usually subdued.

2. The Magnetic Attraction of H.H.T. If I think healthy affirmations, make the happiness choice, and set a terrific challenge for myself, then what? The story recipe is that if you use self-motivators, set a goal, and learn the rules of the game, then you are more apt to attract, recognize, focus on, and send out magnetic signals to attract positive results. If I think negative affirmations, decide to be unhappy, and do not seek challenge, then I am subject to manipulation, alienation and damage.

3. The Power of Negative Thinking. What is the other side of the coin? If I think negative, then I am entering the dialectic, the negation of the positive. I assume that what I think is going on, what I hear people saying, is indeed not what is going on and not what they are doing. There are bad people and they do bad things. For every plus there is a minus. For every unity, there is diversity. I attack the Pollyanna surface to expose its negative underbelly. But, I also negate the negatives, the NMA (Negative Mental Attitude) around me, in order to affirm the positive. PMA is a negation of the negatives. Only by negation, does the individual break out of other people's chains and into freedom.

4. Mind Control. I am opposed to mind control, but I am in favor of self-reflection. Marcuse writes: "Thought "corresponds" to reality only as it transforms reality by comprehending its contradictory structure... to comprehend what things really are, and this in turns means rejecting their mere factuality. Rejection is the process of thought as well as of action.... Reason is the negation of the negative." Mind discipline is intelligence, but mind control is domination of men and women by an oppressive instead of liberating thought process. If instead of limiting thought to positives, we see thought as a struggle of good and evil, of positive and negative, then instead of mind control, we have the freedom to choose and to change.

5. The Affirmation of Freedom. I do not have to surrender to a negative environment, to negative circumstance, or play someone else's game, or perform a role in someone else's scenario. I can create my own environment, change the circumstances, re-define the game rules, and fashion my own unique role in my own story. The message of the story is to rebel against other people's negative expectations by setting a positive mood. Self-talk using self-affirmation is reasoned self-discipline and self-control. Man can use thought to change his affirmations and to then go out and change the world. Emancipation and freedom are choices.

6. Self-Influence. In the story, Jerry and his 18-year-old apprentice were able to ignore their environment and engage in self-influence. They reacted to the world on their own individualistic terms. They intervene in the natural taken-for-granted order and did the entrepreneurial walk. Jerry's actions were based on a re-definition of his situation. He constructed a creative meaning and he de-constructed a negative (status quo) meaning. Jerry experienced the tension between accepting the meaning others were handing to him and creating his own interpretation.

7. Words have Power. There are words that motivate and make use more creative and bring us more freedom. There are words that depress us and make us afraid to create and take away our freedom. The negative imprisons us, denies our options, and robs our potential to be unique. PMA can be domination too. The H.H.T. people can oppress and dominate the NMA (negative mental attitude) people. The domination is linguistic. The PMA community has a language that gives them their identity and sets up an optional enemy: the NMA language community. But, inside each person is that battle between the NMA voices and the PMA voices between the self-negatives and the self-positives, between the inhibitor words and the liberator words. Self-help tape, books, and seminars are popular with sales people and executives. They seek to sustain PMA in a world full of NMA.

 

8. Feelings are Choices. Feelings are a combination of my response to the environment and my response to myself. I intend to be H.H.T. by affirmation. I intervene in how I internalize and externalize my feelings. I am critical of how I naturally feel about myself in the world. I become a spectator of my own feelings and my experience of the world. If I can choose how I feel, then I can choose how I act.

 

 

I feel HEALTHY. PMA is a choice. You can program your mind to be more positive. In this way you seek out positiveness in the world and since you are positive, you attract more positive opportunities to you. Joseph Campbell says the hero follows his/her bliss. To be the hero of your own journey, you need to think healthy thoughts. Your story has two expectations. First, you have to affirm that you can do something. "I can give this class." Second, you have to affirm that you will get rewarded by the taking the journey you are starting. If I eat less, I will loose weight, and that will allow me to buy the clothes I want to wear.

I feel HAPPY. Happiness is a state of being, not doing and not waiting for some outcome. If your happiness depends on results and contingencies, you are controllable by the modernist machine --- others control your happiness. Being happy means finding those moments each day that are energizing. I like to ask the question: "which of these things I have to do will I remember 20 years from now?" Often that is skipping the big meeting and going to my son's Soccer match. Happiness does not depend upon getting into college, getting your promotion, or picking up your Christmas bonus. Happiness just depends upon you. Most people are externally controlled and can not permit themselves to feel happiness until some environment condition is just right. Others are too busy doing, too busy spinning their treadmill to feel happy. If you wait for happiness, it will never come your way. Being happy, is being happy in the "here and now," in the present. It does not depend on what came before, or what will come after. Relaxation exercises help you get into the present, into the here and now of happiness.

I feel TERRIFIC. Setting and reaching personal goals is terrific. You have to do more than think healthy thoughts and get into being happy. Success depends on striving to achieve, to accomplish, to actualize your individual potential. People who write down their goals and their plans are more apt to achieve their goals. Take a small step toward your goal each day and you will be off on your individual journey. As you take a step, set up your own schedule of reinforcement. Be terrific to yourself.

 

 

Healthy and Happy were redefined by modernists as intrinsic motivation techniques. Terrific became an external motivator. But, for the pre-modernist, these were self-motivators to take him/her beyond external control. Strengthening his mind to be more self-reliant.

David McClelland's Need for Achievement Stories. McClelland showed people various pictures and had them write a five-minute story about what was going on each picture. He then analyzed the stories for achievement-oriented phrases, plots, and themes. "He tries his best to succeed." Pre-modern, like modern and postmodern stories are influential.

The Doctor Story

A boy is dreaming of being a doctor. He can see himself in the future. He is hoping that he can make the grade. It is more or less a fantasy. The boy has seen many pictures of doctors in books, and it has inspired him He will try his best and hopes to become the best doctor in the country. He can see himself as a very important doctor. He is performing a very dangerous operation. He can see himself victorious and is proud of it. He gets world renown for it. He will become the best doctor in the U.S. He will be an honest man, too. His name will go down in medical history as one of the greatest men. 14

 

Deconstruction

1. McClelland also analyzed children's stories in different cultures to determine which countries fed their children a steady diet of achievement themes. The highest scores were children from the U.S., Italy and India.

2. Achievement people like challenge. Achievement people prefer tasks that have some risk of failure, yet are somewhat difficult to master, and adventures that are somewhat challenging. They are competitive and seek setting in which they can test their skills against others.

3. Stories. What we want to understand is how do people use stories and conversation to influence each other. What is the process of influence? People are influenced and motivated and mobilized by stories. Stories define unmet needs, dissatisfactions as well as opportunities, challenges and the paths, scenarios, and plots to get to a new place. Stories influence by conveying the horrors that happen when needs do not get met, when opportunities and challenges are not addressed and what are the consequences of following negative scenarios and horrific plots. Stories influence. Since there are many influences, each influence perspective has its own stories.

 

 

 

MODERN INFLUENCE

P Performativity: People are human resources to be used by the system to maximize its performance. In the sweatshop performativity means work till you drop dead.

 

The modern way of organizing influence for performativity is the basis for the worldwide network of subcontracting sweatshops that our postmodern consumer culture does not seem to be able to live without. Even Frederick Taylor, the Father of Scientific Management thought that the sweatshop was a horrible way to influence people and not even the most productive way to run an enterprise. Taylorism was a way to stop the sweatshops of the 1900s just as Marxism was a way to stop it in the 1860s.  Adam Smith and both modernists, Marx and Taylor agreed on this fundamental point: MODERN SCIENCE, BE IT BY TAYLORISM OR BY MARXIST TRADE UNIONS, OR SMITH SCIENCE OF CAPITALISM WOULD END SWEATSHOPS. So why are they still here? 

Introduction: To make people comply, management uses scientific management, behavioral science, and even human relations theory. Human Relationalists use peer group manipulation, administrative science uses surveillance, behaviorists use punishments and rewards to get men and women to be compliant parts in the machine. Modernist transforms persons into the "rational" animal, the "economic" man making rational choices, the "group" thinker.

The Modern Textbook of Management - Let me summarize it in one table( See Paper, Death, Terror & Motivation Theory.

Table XYZ - The Influence Theories of the Modern Management textbook

MASLOW NEED THEORY HERZBERG MOTIVATOR-HYGIENE
HIGHER ORDER NEEDS

1.Self-Actualization (growth, challenge, creative work)

MOTIVATORS:

1. Opportunity for achievement

2. Creative and challenging work

3. Possibility for Personal Growth

2. Self-Esteem (status, appreciation, recognition, and power-ego symbols and promotions) 4. Responsibility.

5. Recognition

6. Advancement

7. Job Status

3. Social Needs (group/team feeling with lots of love and acceptance) 8. Interpersonal Relationships with superiors, peers, and subordinates
LOWER ORDER NEEDS: 

4. Safety Needs (safe working conditions, living wages, grievance systems, etc.)

HYGIENE FACTORS:

9. Company policies and administration

10. Salary  

11. Benefits

12. Job Security

13. Quality of Technical Supervision

14. Working Conditions

5. Psychological needs (Need to breathe, eat, take rests, get drink of water) Sex was not a Maslow need. 15. Personal Live
THEN CAME PROCESS THEORIES
Expectancy Theory

P1 - (Expectancy) Probability, or expectation I can do the task.

P2 -(Instrumentality)  Probability, that if I do it I can expect I will actually  get a reward? (moderated by the value of the reward to me).

Valance - at any given time I prefer one outcome (reward/punishment) to another. 

Expectancy that increasing my effort will lead to  reward [TIMES] the value of the reward that will result from my efforts.

Equity Theory

People compare what inputs (work and experience)) they bring to a job and the outcomes (rewards they receive). and they compare themselves to the inputs and outcomes others are netting.  It is equitable or it ain't. People respond to inequity with feelings of anger or guilt. The most guilt respond to over-pay with an over-compensation effect. Does not seem to work with executives (Ask Eisner or Knight). 

Reinforcement Theory

Positive reinforcement - if behavior is followed by positive consequences, I will repeat that behavior.

Negative reinforcement - the manager nags you and does not stop till you do the thing. 

Punishment - if behavior is followed by negative consequences (flogging), no way will I repeat it again and again. 

Extinction - ignore it and it will go away.

Path Goal Theory (Most Management texts save this for the Leadership theory so they can give the same lesson one more time). There are 5 expectancy variables that combine the 3 nearest squares.

1. Leader manipulates the follower valences by recognizing or arousing basic needs for an outcome that a leader can control.

2. Leader manipulates the followers' instrumentalities (i.e. reducing barriers to being able to perform a task).

3. Leader manipulates the accuracy of workers' role perceptions by making the path to performance clear through coaching and if needed directing.

4. Leader manipulates the equity of rewards by increasing the amount and types of rewards available then followers perform well. This seems to work well with sales organizations (trips to Hawaii are a favorite). 

Path-goal theory teaches 4 behavioral styles that leaders can use to manipulate the five expectancy variables. 

1. The leader can be directive (that is authoritarian path-goal setting), 

2. supportive (that is a genuine display of concern for subordinates - right?), 

3. participative (that is asking for and using suggestions from workers instead of throwing them away), and 

4. achievement-oriented leadership (that is setting high goals and quotas thereby showing how confident you are in your subordinates). 

The Modern Narrative. What is the influence story here? The narrative of modern influence is the story of rational compliance: teaching manipulation categories, slicing man into categories, and using categories to control man.

Three Strands. In these stories, we find that pre-modern, modern, and postmodern motifs, dualities, themes, and values intermingle. There is a dialectic between the three strands. Modernist is taking over from pre-modernist. Pre-modern and postmodern resist and rebel.

Now, we would like to tell you the real story of modern influence, the one that gets left out of all the textbooks. 

While you are busily learning to memorize your 5 manipulation path-goal valences, and tell a positive from a negative reinforcement, Wal-Mart is using path-goal theory to set up sweatshops in China.  

Liu Zhang (not real name) works for a Wal-Mart factory in china (Roberts & Bernstein, October 2, 2000 "A Life of Fines and Beatings" Business Week, pp. 123-128). He makes those Kathie Lee Gifford handbags. Wal-Mart's Code of Ethics prohibits sweatshops. Liu is charged $15 a month for food and lodging in some over-crowded workers' dorm, while getting paid $22 a month  to work in the Wal-mart factory. Do the math.  His ID card was comphiscated at the factory, so that he could not venture more than a few feet from the factory gate or face arrest.  "Guards regularly punched and hit workers for talking back to managers or even for walking too fast" Liu says (p. 123). This is called, negative reinforcement, but I think it is really just punishment, and the managers are using an achievement-motivation path-goal strategy --- setting quotas real high to make sure only the most motivated workers get more than pennies a day.  Since customers and investors are beginning to complain about such practices, the Wal-Mart executives hired auditors (probably Price Waterhouse Coopers) to go to the factory and verify that proper path-goal theories of influence were in use.  But at Liu's factory, the subcontractors know the drill.  They set up an alternative factory site for the auditors to visit, one that had excellent working conditions, high pay for workers, and shorter hours, than the one where the real work was still being done. "900 workers were locked in the walled factory compound for all but a total of 60 minutes a day for meals" (p. 123). One of the Wal-mart factories, for example sought to avoid monitor's gaze as follows:

Management ... split the factory into two groups. The first, with about 200 workers, was assigned to work on the fixed-up second floor, while the remaining 700 or so worked on the fourth floor, leaving the other floors largely vacant.  Managers announced that those on the fourth floor were no longer working for Chun Si [factory that make products for Wal-Mart] but for a new factory they called Yecheng. Workers signed new labor contracts with Yecheng, whose name went up outside the fourth floor.  The reality soon became clear. Workers on the fourth floor, including Liu and Pang, were still laboring under the old egregious conditions - illegally low pay, 14-hour days, exorbitant fees for meals - and still making the same Kathie Lee handbags. "It felt like being in prison," says Pang, 22. But those on the second floor now received the local minimum wage of $55 a month and no longer had to do mandatory overtime. A new sign went up in the cafeteria used by workers on all floors explaining that the factory was a Wal-Mart supplier and should live up to certain labor standards. Liu says there was even a phone number workers could call with problems" 1-800-WM-ETHIC. "When we saw the Wal-Mart statement, we felt very excited and happy because we thought that now there was a possibility to improve our conditions, says Liu.

Wal-Mart is not alone, it now appears that many apparel companies selling clothing on university campuses with college logos on them are engaged in similar path-goal practices. The global corporations of the 1st world seem unable to influence the 3rd world manufacturers that higher order influence strategies really work. Taylor, Smith, and Marx are rolling over in their graves. The motivation theories, be the need or process ones, are part of the machine that burns out the lives of millions of workers who overwork to make products sold at the mall. It is no wonder that many of these corporations are headquartered in the US.  

Americans according to the UTNE Reader (September-October, 2000: 49) average 9 days off a year and have fewer vacation days mandated by law than the sweatshop nations of the 3rd world

 

Table: Vacation Days By Law (UTNE Reader, p. 50)

Spain
France
Ireland
Japan
Portugal
Belgium
Norway
German
US
30
30
28
25
25
24
21
18
  0
If you'd like to sign a petition that "Escape" magazine has going for a
campaign to get the U.S. Congress to recognize workers' rights to more time off by granting us three weeks paid vacation for at least a year's work you
can sign it electronically at www.escapemag.com .

 

 

In Denmark there was a strike 2 years ago to get a sixth week of vacation.  Swedes get 5 weeks off by law, and in the US it is 0.  "The husband and wife in a typical U.S. household are now working 500 more hours a year than they did in 1980" (p. 50). And a lot of people I know, including me, work 12 to 14 hours a day, 6 and sometimes 7 days a week. US is so overworked that no wonder they think nothing about shopping at Wal-Mart. They work as many hours as the poor-workers making those Kathie Lee Gifford bags. The path-goal theory of motivation is so successful that we overwork knowing that we will die from it. According to a study by the American Psychosomatic Society:

... men age 35 to 57 who took annual vacations were 21 percent less likely to die young than nonvacationers and 32 percent less likely to die of coronary heart disease.

We are overworked, and seduced by the advertising age and the writers of motivational theories to make work our identity, we are our work.  And we put work first ahead of family. We see our children less and less and wonder why they learn less and less. Workaholism is a chronic condition in the US that we export to the rest of the world. 

We hear promises that the e-commerce age, the wave of service and information technology is going to increase our leisure time. We were supposed to invent robots to do all the sweatshop work. And we were supposed to get more leisure time in the 1st world as well. While Europeans talk of working 6 hour days and three-day work weeks, we work six days.  And guess what we in the US are less productive. We work more hours and more days and take less vacation and we are less productive than the French and Swedes. "According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, from 1992 to 1998, France and Sweden, both five-week vacation lands, matched or surpassed the annual U.S. increase in output per hour while working vastly fewer hours" (p. 53). 

 

We hear a lot of chatter about the Free Market, but we work like slaves, and eagerly consume the Wal-Mart goods made in sweatshops. 

what happened to our modern age? For some answers, we will look to the history of the printers.

Modern Age Printers

I was told that back in Europe in the days of Gutenberg, printers were regarded highly. They were the purveyors of knowledge. And, I understand that in some countries they were allowed to carry a short sword. As we've progressed with the modern age, you have less and less of that. I can just see the change from when I worked at shops and it was somewhat of a community of men and then the guys before had a greater community and the people after now: the girls at the computers and phototypesetter. I would not even consider that community. You know? [Boje, 1983. ER-10].

People seek their community outside of work.

From Quality attitude to Leisure Attitude

The attitude today is no one really cares to do a quality job. Young people for the most part, want to give you eight hours and then they want to leave and during the eight hours they're not necessarily overly interested in working hard. Some are, of course, but many are not... But still in all they live in a different world than the one we come from, when there was more stress on quality. They will give you quality because you demand it, not because they want to give it. [Boje, 1983. EL-13].

 

Pre-modern man meets postmodern man: The John Wayne & Dustin Hoffman Stories.

This is part of a transcript from a large utility company, we are calling, Edison. In the many stories presented, the characters are talking about, though this was not their agenda at the time, the transition of Edison from a Modern to a Postmodern organization. John Wayne represented the pre-modern character, the Masons, Mormons, and Naval Officers (See stories in previous chapters) are more modern, and the character of Dustin Hoffman personified postmodern man. In this grand historical transition of a hundred-year-old company, the transition of the role of the individual and that individual's relationship to the organization is the central theme. The work ethic of the individual and the corresponding type of organization necessary to accommodate the new breed of worker is necessarily different for pre-modern, modern, and postmodern fibers which thread their way through Edison history.

Scene One: Pre-Modern Utility: John Wayne meets Dustin Hoffman.

Mike "I think the heroes of this company are the John Wayne character. You know, the rugged individualistic. You know, when I came here I looked at the culture too and its got what I call a lot of old cowboys in it. And we even have a history book and it starts back in 1910 or something and its building something like 57 miles of railroad through the Sierras to get the water down. You can imagine what was going on then and that kind of sacrifice and rugged outdoorsy. You know, and you look at the photographs. Look at the Edison News which comes out every payday. And it shows pictures of the linemen and so forth. Most of them I would say that most of those guys look like Daniel Boone. They have long hair, moustaches and beards, and plaid shirts. It's an image. It's a kind of a uniform type thing. And they like that. They made the company type thing."

 

Enter Dustin, the Postmodern Utility Man.

Ben "But I think they're running into problems now [Yeah, Oh Yeah] Because the John Waynes are running the company and the Dustin Hoffmans are being hired."

Mike "Also some of the Dustin Hoffmans are moving up into middle management. Slowly and there may even be one of them who is a vice-President. An I think he will be forever seen as always being in short pants."

Sue "I think there are two areas in Edison that [have] been known for tough management... Power Supply and Customer Service and the [second is] the macho of the Field People. Well, we've been doing a three phase training program with customer service starting with pre-supe[rvisor] and now we've got second level going and first level. And we've had the VP of customer service, a fairly new person saying: "Well there is a difference between leaders and bosses." And one of the people piped up and said: "You mean now we're going to start treating people like human beings around here." Because out there its always been very autocratic. You know! "Get your ass up the pole and do it." You know this is the job today. Today [its] more participate you know. They seem to be reacting posittively in the classroom, but they're real skeptical that this is really going to come about in the field."

Boj "....What you're saying [is] there are some new role models coming into ... Edison which connote some new values. What would those values be? What is a Dustin Hoffman character, in short pants?"

Mike "When I mentioned Dustin Hoffman - there are some in middle management - I was thinking more of a lineman who takes less pride in --- slightly less pride in the macho image. And they do a job and they do it well and there is probably some macho to it, but at the end of eight hours, let's go home and crank up the RV. I think there is more personal dedication than there is to dedication to the company. And that's where the Waynes and the Hoffmans are having trouble".

Dick "I think in the older managers --- it was job comes first and you do whatever it takes to complete the job. And the current middle management philosophy is more people oriented. I think its reflected very well in Morris Massey's book: The People Puzzle. He talks about the times people were born and those decades and the influence that they had on the way people perceived what they are doing."

Boj "There is a fellow named Stinchecombe with a hypothesis that says companies pick up their cultural identity at the time of their formation and that it stays with the company."

Doug "When he goes into that depression --- We're a product of the depression and I see it in our newer managers and our supervisors are not necessarily a product of the depression. I mean they've heard these tales maybe from their parents, but we still have enough old line managers here who remember the day that they won't let you get a dime to go get an ice cream cone and there was no dime for it. You know? and they are --- still are very conservative in their views. But, I think that's changing as you get away from that depression era. Those old tales.

Mike I think one of the differences between the John Waynes and the Dustin Hoffmans has to do with management style and philosophy. It has to do with willingness to be influenced by someone else. The cliche in conversation: "allowing others the freedom to participate in what happens to their livelihood."

Sue I can give you an example of that where a district manager was called into a district where they had always grown their own and they'd always done what they'd wanted their way. Well they were violating some safety policies ... and they knew that basically they were going to be held accountable to the district manager. And yet this person was very willing to meet with all these foremen - to work though and talk through what their concerns were and why. And getting them to understand his tion and why he said: "No you are not going to do it that way." ...

Mike "Well these two guys came in on a Wednesday and they were having a meeting on Friday and they wanted some advice from us. And uggg about how they should handle these guys [the foremen who violated safety policies]"

Don "And the union reps brought grievance against them"

Mike "And we advised them --- stick to your guns. You were right according to contract. The worst thing you could do was bend that contract... And then we went into how to handle confrontation. ... we told them if you give on that one. And what I think we were doing was taking into account the [John Wayne] culture of the company. You know? The people who were grieving would not have respected those managers because of the culture of the company which says: "You're John Wayne. You stick to your guns when you know you are right!" So he did that, it was pretty difficult."

Boj "I'm excited to hear the emphasis on participation and on confrontation because I teach those values in my MBA class."

 

 

Table 4.5: John Wayne and Dustin Hoffman

 

John Wayne: Pre-Modernist

Dustin Hoffman: Postmodernist

Hard nosed

Tyrannical, Dominant

Mean son of a bitch

Coercive, Cruel

Have autocratic heros

Tough management

Participation is abdication

Abusive, intimidating

Brute of a person

Bull of the woods

COWBOY DISCOURSE:

Slow to pull the trigger

Rugged Individualist

Old cowboy

Notched ears (fast track)

Calf that's marked

Cow tail to superiors

Stick to your guns

Knock your block off

Square Dealing

Known for their drinking

Hit the bar and went at it with two hands

Hard living group

Plays poker

NOT TOUGH:

The dude

Treat us like humans

People oriented

Willing to listen

Talks through concerns

Wears short pants

More participative

Less macho image

Willing to be influenced by others

NOT COMPANY ORIENTED

More personal than company dedication

Educated (MBA, Law, or Engineering degree)

Drives an RV

Will not work overtime

Thinks half day is 9 to 5 instead of 9 to 9.

Has not clum.

Not part of Edison family.

Not a "home growner"

 

Scene Two: The Modern Masons Play Poker.

Mike "I wouldn't say there is an emphasis on it uh in fact some people are disappointed because they have been asked to participate. And if the person who is doing the asking doesn't like their participation or doesn't like what he hears he reverts back to the old [John Wayne] style. I tend to look at it in terms of personality theory. I think that the successful manager or executive in this company has a classical approach which means... that you dominate and abuse those below you and cow tail to those above. And it works and the job gets done. Some people don't like that. Particularly, younger folk from a different [Dustin Hoffman] generation. ... old line managers do not understand difference between participation and abdication.

Doug Yeah but, your reward system, not so much now, but it was very prevalent where if you were one of the good ole boys, you did all right. Your reward for being a good ole boy was ultimately being promoted. Not necessarily based on your skills.

Mike Didn't 20 or 30 years ago, or maybe not that long ago, being a member of the club meant being a Mason.

Doug A member of the club meant playing poker. Now this fortunately was knocked off by a chairman of the board who had heard that promotions were being discussed and actually consummated by a group playing poker in an evening. "It's your turn to nominate a guy now."

Mike "I'll see your raise and I'll throw in George."

Doug "We have to promote your man now. He's due. In fact, we had an employee attitude survey sometime back. Our then President, Mr X, said that he wanted all of the department heads to read the results of that employee attitude survey as they pertained to his or her organization and ... she was very conscious because she was very new... conscious of her image... she had each of her managers reporting to her come in and read them. And I remember --- and this is directly true like Mike said. It said "why are the decisions made by the Masonic group?" An ugg, I don't have a chance to make it in the company because I'm not a Mason." And they actually zeroed in on that. Well then, this came to the attention of topside and uh certain things were taken care of. We could notice a few --- at least I did, a few things go on.

Mike "You don't wear a Masonic ring anymore do you?

Doug Sorry, I stopped at De Molay [an organizations for boys sponsored by the Masonic Lodge]

Boj Was it difficult to change that image of the Masonic order or poker game?

Doug "The old poker game was knocked off. That was earlier. That was earlier. The John Waynes, the hard living --- and incidentally, we had a vice president at that time who had been a former chief in the Navy and had not had a high school degree and would openly admit to this in a gathering of all of his department people. It was the largest company in the company... around 6,000 people... "there's a lot of opportunities for people in the company to grow and make it, I did. I'm a Vice President and I don't have a high school degree and by God I made it and so can you." Well you know, I mean do don't have any more Abraham Lincoln's around here anymore now. Our topside people have MBA's and law degrees and engineering degrees... but that was the style then. I made it , you can and we'll discuss this further at our poker party on Saturday night. Well that was gradually dissolved and done away with."

 

MASONIC DISCOURSE

Masonic Order

Good old boys network

Members of the Club are Mason

Members of the Club play poker

I'm not a Mason

Masonic Ring

De Molay

 

Scene Three: The John Waynes drink, the Mormons Don't. The Transition to Postmodern.

Mike "What's behind this drinking controversy that's going on now? ... For example, you can imagine that a lineman on a telephone pole who has a couple of beers with his lunch is not going to be as safe. You know compared to someone who hasn't had anything. So in part of the company now there is no drinking policy ... You ain't allowed to drink period during working hours. Now another side of the company is saying that's poppycock and they are known for their drinking and so there is a corporate committee now formed to study this will all sides represented and they are due to come down with a recommendation for the policy on that.... I'm wondering that if a real strong thing in this company isn't something called fairness. Damn it, if the linemen can't drink at lunch, then the Vice Presidents can't either, and the staff people and personnel can't either. I don't know if that's behind it...

Sue "I heard of two instances that might have kicked that off. One was where umm Mr M. was holding meetings out in the districts and one guy raised his hand and said: "I'm a lineman splicer and I'm sick and tired of going up the pole and having my life put on the line by these people who have been drinking and when are we going to stop this stupidity." And that's one story I heard. And, I don't know it its true. We're just hearing these things.

The other one was where the crews --- it was storm condition and the crew was entitled to a dinner. Went out to a dinner at a pizza parlor and were all having beer. ...An operations supervisor came in an said: "Hey, we need you back out there." Something happened. And they kind of got into this scuffle or whatever. Those are the two things I heard that might have precipitate it, but I don't know.

 

Doug "Well, there's a third one and that is the Chairman of the Board is a Mormon! So when you want to get promoted you issue an edict about not drinking and about several months later you become an executive vice president or a senior vice president when you were formerly a (long pause). Now that's the other one.

Sue "You know, I've heard the opposite. I've heard the opposite. I've heard that Mr M. was furious when he heard what Mr X had done, because he felt that ... our chairman of the board being a Mormon is now trying to impose his own values and I think he was furious. ... We're telling you stories of which you probably can't validate some of them.

Doug "We'd prefer not to believe that too.

Boj "I think what's important about the stories and why I pursue them as a topic is they do convey the values and if you put an ear to the wall and you listen to some of those stories, you can pick up what the current issues a company is wrestling with. ...

 

MORMON DISCOURSE

Chairman of the Board is a Mormon

Issue an edict about not drinking and get promoted

The drinking controversy

Imng his values on John Wayne

 

 

Scene Four: Modern Management is transformed by Postmodern Discourse.

Mike "Now what happened with last revision is.... uh the pronoun he was modified to include she's and there were more pictures of minorities and women. Before it was all white male. And it was each man has one boss type of philosophy. Well now they changed that to allow for something modern called matrix management and they tinkered with that phrase a little bit. But this is a very interesting book and it says a lot about the values of the company and what comes through to me is as Doug says: "ole line, respectable, established, this kind of thing, square dealing, fairness" you know?

Doug "We attract a whole new employee [now] . . .

Boj "It might be nice if you have a series of those books to go back and look and see how they changed certain contents.

Mike "There's at least five revisions of this thing.

 

 

Don "But it's always blue ... and it only gets edited when there's a new CEO.

Doug "Ant they still have courteous treatment for unions and blah, blah, blah.

Don "And they do. It took two years to get that thing through and revised. It had to go to extraordinary levels to have it edited. And there must have been six or seven key people who read every word of it and deliberated it. It was like re-doing the Bible.

Mike "When the vice-presidents and the top management --- they have an annual offsite. And when one of them asked me to come up with a list of provocative questions that he could propose for discussion. Anyway, I referred to the motto. I gave him a list of I don't know, ten and he was going to pick three or four. And I referred to the motto: "Good service, Square dealing, and Courteous treatment." And I suggested the provocative question be: "Is that meant for the company's interface with its customers or is that also meant to apply inwardly, also toward the employees?" And this guy says: "Wow, you know I never thought of that." He didn't use that. . . .

 

REVISING MODERN DISCOURSE

Revisions versus nothing changes

Pronoun he modified to include she

More pictures of minorities

More pictures of women

Phrases like modern matrix organization

The faded motto: Good service, Square Dealing, and Courteous Treatment.

Motto getting redefined (remythologized).

Courteous treatment for unions

Fewer John Waynes, Navy Admirals, and more Dustins.

Dustin is not part of Edison Family.

Dustin listens, participates, and goes home early.

DECONSTRUCTION POINTS

1. Diversity. As the American work place becomes, more diverse, the organizational machine is not able to homogenize people into precise cogs in the industrial machine. The modernist accommodation is to replace "he" with "she" and "I" with "us" while putting in more pictures of minorities and women in the company literature. In the postmodern organization, diversity is celebrated. The organization builds diversity as a strategy to compete more effectively in diverse global markets. In the postmodern organization, diversity is an asset.

2. Dustin Hoffman. Dustin personifies the postmodern man. Dustin does not form intimate, fraternal, familial attachments with the work organization. Dustin is not a company man. Dustin balances his life between leisure, family, and work. Work is a career, something he trained for in college. Dustin will network within the organization, but his attachment is less committed and Dustin will move on to work in many companies and he knows it.

 

 

 

How the Science of Human Relations Affects Modernist Influence?

The Hawthorne Studies. There were a series of studies in the Western Electric Plant in Hawthorne (Chicago) from 1924 to 1932: the illumination experiments, the relay-assembly test room experiments, and the bank wiring observation room experiments. Regardless of illumination changes, environmental changes, incentives were modified between a control group and the experimental group, but both groups increased performance to higher levels. Professor Elton Mayo explained it as "The Hawthorne Effect." If managers pay attention to their people, the people react by being more productive. It is not the money or the environmental lighting, seating, etc. that determines productivity. The Hawthorne effect was thought to explain Taylor's experiments at Bethlehem Steel. The Hawthorne experiments had discovered human relations as a factor that affects productivity. Informal work group norms for what is a fair day's work and group norms for what is the minimum and maximum daily output for a fair day's work controlled productivity levels.

A Critique of the Human Relations Movement as being Social Science Engineering. If Taylor was the mechanical engineer, the Human Relationalists became the social engineers: manipulating work group norms to engineer more productivity.

1. Scientism. Some social scientists believe there can be an exact science of man. People are treated as definite objects. Mathematics is used dogmatically to categorize, sort, and stereotype man into numbered cells. This section is a critique of those who measure personality, intelligence, group dynamics, and aptitude in order to plan man. The modernization of man has this agenda:

More than ever, the world's greatest need is a science of human relationships and an art of human engineering based upon the laws of such science (Whyte, 1956: 27).

Scientism is the control of the human mind to plan and control and otherwise socially engineer the human machinery. Modernism is an age of social engineering. If Taylor represents the extremes of physical engineering, then the human relations movements represents the extreme of social engineering. Taylor seems too obvious in his applications of mechanical engineering to humans to be effectual. Human Relationalists put on the mantle of the good therapists and appear rather mild-looking and mild-mannered helpers.

Thoreau once said: "If you see a man approach you with the obvious intent of doing you good, you should run for your life."

2. Evangelism. Social engineers evangelize that it is possible and desirable to align the goals of man with the goals of organization. The father of Human Relations is Elton Mayo. His experiments at the Hawthorne, Illinois plant of Western Electric are reported in every management textbook. They were surprised to discover the Hawthorne Effect. When you change the illumination level in a production room and left it the same for a control group, production increased for both groups. A Harvard group repeated the experiments in a "relay assembly" test room. They introduced changes in lighting, rest periods, hours, and economic incentives. Output increased for the test group and also inexplicably for the control group.

The human relations experimenters had discovered that the workers were an informal social system. Like Taylor, they had discovered that the informal work groups controlled their output. The informal social system appreciated their ideas being solicited, their involvement in the experiments, and they responded with increased output. The Hawthorne effect was the battle cry of the human relations movement and was used to attack Frederick Taylor's scientific management principles. Taylor's changes in incentives and work planning were a Hawthorne effect.

3. Harmony Groups. In the pre-modernist period, back to the Middle Ages, people were disciplined by informal codes of behavior in the trade groups they belonged to. The scientific engineering by Taylorists, had split the work group apart by strict scheduling and planning clerks. Liberals were happy to see feudal group alliances breakdown, because this freed the individual to be an individual. Mayo, on the other hand, saw that man was most motivated by his group membership. What was good for the work group was therefore good for the health of the individual. How can man enjoy the belongingness of pre-modern, feudal times, without the disadvantages pointed out by Taylor?

 

The science of human relations was the engineering of the harmonious work group.

1. Interviews. Mayo and his followers made the interview a management tool. Human relations' scientists were hired by management to listen to worker troubles, dissatisfactions, and grievances. In this way the scientist adjusted man to his work group. The human relations psychiatrists understood gripes about an evil foreman who reminded them of their father or mother.

I will be running down the list I will read aloud "married: seventeen years." Then I will read "children: none." I will let my eyebrows go up just a little and then pause thoughtfully. He is probably very sensitive on this point and in a few minutes he will begin to blurt out something about his wife or himself being sterile, and how maybe they have seen doctors about it... After several more minutes of stress I build him up again. Toward the end of the interview I usually smile and say, "Well, why don't we stop while we're ahead." That makes him relax and makes him think everything is going to work out all right. Then I shoot a really tough one at him. He is caught off guard" (Whyte, p. 206-7).

2. Nondirective Sensitivity Counseling. Non-directive counseling was used by Freudian followers to get workers to express the insensitivity of management to workers. Sensitivity training groups became popular in the 1950's, 60's and 70's. All group disharmonies were analyzed to adjust the individual to his or her work group.

 

3. Personality Testing. Personnel testing is not descended from the scientific management movement, it is descended from the human relations movement. Human relations scientists are more interested in harmony measures, than in productivity measures. Personality tests, IQ tests, GMAT tests to get into MBA programs allows the Human engineers to measure the whole man. The whole American Society is obsessed with testing and examining people by some yardstick of conformity. The shared fallacy is that these tests assume social scientists can measure minor variations in human beings so that their future behavior can be predicted. If it can be predicted, it can then be planned. Plan the group by testing the personalities of the group for compatibility. Management uses psychological tests to weed out unqualified an disruptive workers. The happy man is part of a harmonious work group.

 

4. Social Science Research. There is a near-evangelical acceptance of social science research (Whyte, p. 48). The Human Relations movement wanted to break the efficiency, time and motion experts grip on the big corporation. They sought to sensitize CEO's to group dynamics, informal organization, and social psychology. The evangelical aspects can be seen in the rhetoric that America was on the brink of the great discovery of the science of the group. Synergy " the whole is greater than the sum of its part --- proved that groups were superior to individuals. Social Science research would unleash human creativity, problem solving, and group dynamics. It was a crusade against the authoritarianism of Taylorism to democratize the work place. "Down with the authoritarian Tyrants!"

5. Group Dynamics Harmony. Human relations experts could create a harmonious climate in the group and between groups in the organizations by imparting the science of group dynamics. Man could once again be socially secure and at the same time individually creative. Teaching management and organizational behavior from the 1950's to the 1970's meant stimulating discussion, group games, and non-directed learning bull sessions. The leaderless class and the leaderless group were imports from the Tavistock (England) school of human relations training. "In many institutions, as a consequence, the yardstick of a teacher's performance is the amount of interaction he develops in the group, and those who keep the students' focus on the discipline are apt to find themselves under censure" (Whyte, p. 56). The forcing of harmony is just as despotic as the forcing of mechanistic engineering principles onto man.

6. Normalization. With all the aptitude, psychological, psychiatry, group dynamic testing, measuring, and categorizing going one by the social scientists, it became possible to prescribe scientific norms for relating the individual to the group and planning motivation in the corporation. Individuals who depart form the norms of the majority are deviates. Modern organization uses social science to dominate the individual by standardizing and formalizing the norms to which she must conform.

 

7. Professionalization of Leadership. In pre-modern times leaders were gutsy, authoritarian, self-assured, visionaries, on a mission to tame industry. They were ruthless. Now social scientists train them in the scientific arts to be professional executives. The entrepreneurial talent of the pre-modern executive has been channeled into administrative work. The hero of the modern, scientific organization is the bureaucrat. Instead of the dream of taming the frontier, higher quality products, and better customer services --- he dreams of his pension plan, the next ski trip, stock options, and the next corporation he will move to next quarter. The professional administrator works on a treadmill, without tangible goals for taming the frontier. Administrators compete for survival with other administrators in the professional rat race, rather than competing with other companies.

 

 

Modernist Taylor Note: For Taylor, and modernism, the leader was no longer a sovereign. Science was the new sovereign. Science could determine not only the worker's job, but that of the manager as well. For Taylor, the worker was in need of influencing because of his laziness, indolence, ignorance, etc. and needed reform according to fit the competitive struggle. The application of scientific principles allowed management to motivate to the worker to increase performance and reinforce strong work ethics.

A long series of experiments, coupled with close observation, had demonstrated the fact that when workmen of this caliber are given a carefully measured task, which calls for a big day's work on their part, and that when in return for this extra effort they are paid wages up to 60 per cent. Beyond the wages usually paid, that this increase in wages tends to make them not only more thrifty but better men in every way; that they live rather better, begin to save money, become more sober, and work more steadily (Taylor, p. 74).

but even Taylorism, is an improvement in the types of factory systems that we seeking subcontracted by the global enterprise, eager to get to the cheapest worker in the most despotic country, where a John Wayne management style would make Taylor roll in his grave. And now we find that Taylorism, has morphed and evolved, and at least in France, there are forms of post-Taylorism, that would not be quite what Frederick Winslow had in mind. 

 

POSTMODERN INFLUENCE

 

Introduction. The postmodern influence is the individual seeking to unplug from the Matrix and find their own way. The means that the individual de-centers organization influence, even consumptive influence and begins to resituate the self in a world that defines self by one's materiality and brand-hip  purchases. The individual is unconforming even to people's contradictory voices, caught in a web of fragmented and irrational participation mediated by virtual and other technology, trying to affirm the self, to reclaim influence over the self in the postmodern condition. The postmodern person deconstructs the influence of other people's language, other people's stories, especially what pours out from the corporate media in this age of advertising, and does not act as an actor in other people's stories. The postmodern project is to reverse the binding and confining influences of modernism and pre-modernism. And it is even to find the individual now lost in the postmodern world. With the mix of pre, mod, and post, we find that influences on the individual make us designers of our own lifestyles, once we unplug.

 

 

I-N-D-I-V-I-D-U-A-L

 

I Independent: Avoid domination, be private, and seek freedom from collective influences. The postmodern project is the death of bureaucratic influence. Formal organization, as a modernist invention, took people's independence away. It is time to emancipate the individual, to liberate him/her from tyranny, from cults, from behavioral manipulation, and from peer groups. Avoid bureaucratic dependency by maintaining temporary commitment, by participating in multiple networks. Abolish the influence of hierarchy, especially surveillance. Much of the information you surrender is an invasion of your independent privacy. Dependence is dead.

N Narcissist: In search of a self-image, self-will. The postmodern project resurrects the ego. Be your own hero. Follow your own bliss (Joseph Campbell). Loyalty to self is more important than loyalty to church, family, or work organization. The Chinese have a saying: "take care of your family before you take care of the world." The narcissist addition would be: "take care of yourself before you take care of your family or the world." Loyalty is dead. And take care of mother earth or we will hear this voice more loudly in the future.

D De-centered: Person is a multiplicity of selves, practices many logics, dis-unified, not-centered. "---Absence of anything at the center or any overriding truth. This means concentrating attention on the margins" (Rosenau, 1992: xi). In planning, it means de-centering planning so that there are many plans in many local groups instead of submitting to one grand central plan. In organizing, de-centering is getting away from a central hierarchy by networking across many diverse forms of organization. In influence, de-centering is getting away from one central truth, one central authority and working with a multiplicity of logics and authorities. In leadership, de-centering is de-throning a central leader and working out a network of leadership. In control, it is de-centering centralized control in favor of self-control. It is the death of the center.  Let's de-center the humans, and make them one of many species.  What is called a move from anthropocentric to ecocentric logic and ethics. In anthropocentric logic, nature revolves around the species, human. In the ecocentric view, all species were created equal with equal rights to survive. For example, the Jains of India believe that all life is sacred and we as human must do all we can to minimize the impact of our commerce on the natural world.  Of course in the postmodern age of simulacra, artificial forestation and vinyl leaves, what is natural anymore?  We now manipulate the Genome, cross plant with fish, and animal with human, to patent new species. So what is natural in such a condition? We are influencing the very stuff of evolution, playing God with the genome. As Jeremy Rifkin puts it, the Biotech age needed postmodern philosophy to legitimate its moves, but there are also postmodern ethicists who question the new science, arguing that we need to move slower and get more voices into this dialog before unleashing new species. What of the ethics of the human competing with the genetically enhanced human? 

 

I Individual: Spontaneous (not planned or rehearsed), unique in thought and action. Not trapped by convention, tradition, or precedent. Not co-opted by the competition of achievement. "The postmodern individual is relaxed and flexible, oriented toward feelings and emotions, interiorization, and holding a "be-yourself" attitude" (Rosenau, 1992: 53). Rigidity is dead. What is the Individual, in an age where the genes can be spliced and people can be cloned; where the robotic elements are more and more apart of our bodies? (pacemakers, glasses, computers, artificial organs, etc.).

V Voices: Each person has many voices in them. We have looked at the FOUR VOICES. Some have less influence, some have more. Bureaucracies are exclusively male-voices, exercising the hegemony of the monologue. It is gender-bound. There is a female and a male voice in each of us. Yet one has more influence than the other in the board room.  The feminist project is to either balancing the male and female voice or to be quite radical and replace the male voice with a female, matriarchal voice. When you do not have a voice, you become marginal and peripheral to the conversation. There is an ethnic and racial voice in each of us. We use a different voice with different groups of people. There is a religious, agnostic, or atheist voice in each of us. There is a parent, adult, and child voice in each of us. The individual selects which voice to use with each utterance. When monarchs ruled over subjects, they also ruled over the voices we could safely exhibit. In postmodern psychology, the task is to de-throne the rational, unified view that people have only one voice. The role of psychoanalysis is to get people to drop their dependence on one voice, one story of who they are. If I have a multiplicity of voices, and I do, then I choose when to use which voice. To avoid modernist influence is to make my own voice decisions. Univocal is dead. IN this multiplicity of voices, the Fourth Voice is the voiceless one. The story that is pre-narrated by the voices that we can almost hear, but as yet are unable to hear. The voice of the animals, the plants.  The voices of the people who make our clothes.  Our postmodern dialog will not be much good until all the voices are heard.  An the Third Voice, the ethical monitor that lives in our head (and soul), the voice that Adam Smith wrote about long ago. Look at the voices of the Fathers and Mother of Management web site. check out Adam Smith. 

 

For Smith man was better off if he listened to his internalized spectator, that THIRD VOICE, that whispered "live within your means:"

In the steadiness of his industry and frugality, in his
steadily sacrificing the ease and enjoyment of the present moment for the probable expectation of the still greater ease and enjoyment of a more distant but more lasting period of time, the prudent man is always both supported and rewarded by the entire
approbation of the impartial spectator, and of the representative of the impartial spectator, the man within the breast. The impartial spectator does not feel himself worn out by the present labour of those whose conduct he surveys; nor does he feel
himself solicited by the importunate calls of their present appetites. To him their present, and what is likely to be their future situation, are very nearly the same: he sees them nearly at the same distance, and is affected by them very nearly in the same manner (Source, Smith, 1759  the Moral Sentiments, Part VI Of the Character of Virtue Consisting of Three Sections).

In An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Smith (1776 ) worked out his ethical virtues into the premiere treatise on the global economy. 

Consider the question of paying the legal minimum wage and paying a "living wage." For Adam Smith in the (1776) Wealth of nations, the choice was clear, economic and moral:

A man must always live by his work, and his wages must at least be sufficient to maintain him. They must even upon most occasions be somewhat more; otherwise it would be impossible for him to bring up a family, and the race of such workmen could not last beyond the first generation (Smith, 17796 CHAPTER VIII Of the Wages of Labour). 

Why was this so clear a point for Adam Smith, the observer and commentator on what it takes to succeed in global capitalism, but is so unclear to the postmodern global enterprise, the one that subcontracts with labor in the poorest of country, and can not lower the advertising a bit to pay the workers a living wage instead of the most legally minimum wage

Is it postmodern to wax nostalgic over the virtues-ethics of Adam Smith? If it reunites ethics and economics, call me pre-modern? For Smith, the impartial spectator voice would not sit by while we took more than our fair share, spent more than we needed, or harmed our neighbor.  a postmodern economy must pay a living wage or it is worst than the feudal sweatshop, not an enlightened enterprise worthy of a corporate charter. 

I Irrational: Fragmented, willing to participate in contrary causes and multiple realities. Two opposing views can both be true. If life is fragmented then central planning leads to disorder, confusion, and the deterioration of life conditions (Rosenau, 1992: 131). Social science personality and style tests make people into objects, box people into categories, and write rational stories on their foreheads. If mass production is irrational, then abandon mass layout, mass-control of time and space and give people space they can control. Maybe experts do not know how to plan and organize better than locals because you can not successfully impose one reality over other realities. Postmodernism "reveals formal organization to be the ever-present expression of an autonomous power that masquerades as the supposedly rational constructions of modern institutions" (Cooper and Burrell, 1988: 110). 15 One rationality is not privileged over others. The pre-modernists believed in God. Modernist believed in the progress of technology, even after Nazism and Hiroshima. Modernist rationality replaced God with a machine, then a computer, and finally sugar-coated the substitution with humanism. Humanism replaced God with Marxism and Stalinism, then split into secular, liberal, enlightenment, Renaissance, and new age humanists. No wonder Skinner wants to put the world in a Skinnerian box and take away all individualism. Post-industrialism promised a higher quality of life, once we adopted the service economy. Postmodernist seeks to abolish all these grand narratives as competing rationalities. Rationality is dead.

D Diversity. Discord and variety are balances to unity, conformity, and community. Division of labor practices invite people to see themselves as members of departmental groups. It is a simplistic category system to keep people divided and conquered. Unity of command is another plan to replace diversity with homogeneity. Hierarchy is out of phase with diversity. Hierarchy selects one power, one rationality, one voice and one whole. In diversity, there are many plans, many ways of organizing, and many influences. Superiority has no place in diversity. Diversity is participative. Diversity multiplies instead of making any one point of view dominant. Hierarchy is dead.

U Unconforming: Self-disciplined rather than other-disciplined; rebel against authority; defy totalitarianism. Do not succumb to "technological" progress. Build your own plan, organize your own process, lead your own changes. Conformity is dead.

 

A Affirming the Self: Self-affirmatives like: "I feel healthy! I feel happy! I feel terrific!" to gain personal control over mind (avoid outside influence and coercion), to promote the self, and retain freedom to choose feelings and actions. The mind is a tabla rasa and I can write my own influences onto it. "Healthy, happy, terrific is one affirmation. Use it if you like. But it is better to develop your own. Affirming the self in an ecocentric ethic, means affirming choices that are life-sustaining; doing a little harm to all species as is possible. Affirming the self in the postmodern world is not wearing all the logos of sweatshop oppression or participating in animal cruelty. How can the self be in any way affirmed if it means sacrificing the rain forests? Getting self-control means being aware of the world context. It is not the tune out and shoot up mentality of the 1960s.  

L Linguistic: Individuals influence by language, by categories, by storied personifications. The postmodern project is to break the shackles of oppressive language. Foucault and Derrida, for example, argue that the self is only a "position in language," a mere "effect of discourse" (Flax, 1990; Rosenau, 1992: 43). The administrative language of "productivity and efficiency" have more influence than words like "quality of life" and "ecology," People live up to their labels and categories. "He always stays overtime." "She puts the organization ahead of her family." "You know they will get the job done right." The individual is subordinated to the formal organization. Subordinate - superior, advisor, assistant, flunky, and imbecile. These are linguistic status categories. They locate you in a pyramid, hierarchy, or caste. The categories prescribe roles, relationships, and patterns of behavior. We are influenced by many diverse texts that prescribe a different characterization onto us. Some linguistic categories are more privileged than others. Categories are dead.

 

 

In the postmodern era, there is more call for mandating more vacation time, working fewer days a week. We need to work to have more leisure, not cut off our leisure time so we can work more. But this is going to take influence of a sort, quite different than what is taught in the modern management textbook. We need some cognitive, mental re-modification.  We need to stop being influenced by the modern machine and the Matrix to think that overwork is motivating.  We need some deprogramming so we can get off this chain gang. If we worked less, we would allow others that luxury. We would consume fewer resources working 6 hours a day and three or four days a week, than keeping up the current overworked pace.  Satish Kumar, a former Jain monk, proposes that we take off the shackles of psychological slavery and learn to live without lots of money (UTNE Reader, September-October, 2000: 52 "Work Less, Be More.").  That is very postmodern influence. It is the basis of the simplicity movement. How to work less, consume less, and enjoy life more.  Life is taking a walk in the dessert, spending time with our kids and spouses, and hanging out with our friends. 

 Cognitive Behavior Modification. In the 40's and 50's, the mind control movement took off. Writers like Norman Vincent Peale, Napoleon Hill and W. Clement Stone advocated The Power of Positive Thinking. The books were full of stories that people could read and enjoy helping them achieve a sense of self-control. In the 1960's and up to the 1990's, the power of positive thinking became the theory of cognitive behavior modification. If you control your thoughts, you can control your behavior. If you think for yourself, instead of playing out the tapes and scripts you learned from your parents, then self-control is possible. This line of influence is practice more by sales people and managers than by others in the firm. Positive self-talk increases PMA (positive Mental Attitude). PMA uses positive reinforcement. Follow and precede a behavior you want to repeat with positive affirmations. Here are mine:

"I feel healthy" because my path to health does not sacrifice the lives of others.

I feel happy" because my path to happiness is not dependent upon over-consumption.

"I feel terrific" because I seek to make a difference in the conduct of the global economy. 

Cognitive behavior modification takes control of the mind away from the Skinner's environmental machine of reinforcements and gives the control to the individual. People can be self-disciplined rather than other-disciplined.  It can mean choosing to live with simplicity instead of consuming more energy, more of everything than any one else.  The one with the most toys at the end of the race, is just a born loser!

What are the borders, boundaries, limits being imposed on the individual? We have surrendered our self to bureaucratic control, how to we get our self back? Compulsive people are trained to be more compulsive, to consume more, and to exact more control over us when they once promised they were going to be empowering people. The fast track is the fast track desire to exercise control over others, under the illusion that you get more freedom for your self. Maybe it is time to try the simplicity track.  As Branden says!

In denying human beings freedom of thought and action, statists and collectivist systems are anti-self-esteem by their very nature. Self-confident, self-respecting men and women are unlikely to accept the premise that they exist for the sake of others. 16

I am not such a Branden fan. I am about trying to get beyond a sense of self, that is so mired in organization man and advertising thinking that I can not smell the flowers and see the beauty and the misery around me. Where is individual freedom in socialized medicine, orderly commerce, protected agriculture, housing projects?  Where is individualized freedom in the sweatshops that make Wal-Mart what it is today? Where is the individualized freedom in a McDonaldized society? Where is the individualized freedom in the Biotech age? 

Can the self-disciplined individual self-manage and self-regulate in the postmodern organization; in the postmodern world? Can the synergy of the whole be obtained by a lot of free thinking parts? Or, will people demand leadership, demand an oppressive system of control, and trade freedom for an imposed order in the global economy? What does it mean to manage in a postmodern organization that is replete with temporary relationships and individuals who are not organization men and women?  It means its time to re-read Adam Smith, to combine a sense of ethics with how we go about influence.

 

Persuasion instead of coercion. Capitalism is not an imposed system of coercion, it is people competing with one another in a free market: free from big government and free from big corporation. For Adam Smith, the threat to capitalism was the monopolist and the greedy fellow who did not have an internal spectator, a THIRD VOICE. What if the individual surrenders freedom of choice in exchange for economic incentives; accepts corporate slavery in exchange for a pay check? What if we become the master of virtual and subcontract slves?  What are we then? 

Can we go beyond Maslow's self-actualization to unity-consciousness in which the dualism of the individual and the collective organization disappear? Most organizational attachments do not allow us to self-actualize. If we rid ourselves of dysfunctional attachments, coercive attachments, and oppressive subjections --- then can we rid ourselves of the dualistic boundary between people and organizations? Or, are we so caught up in a web of life relationships, a network of attachments, that individualism is an illusion? The individual mired in family, fraternal, industrial, educational, social, environmental, governmental, and other organizational relationships. At any given moment, individuality is surrendered to family crisis, hell week, meeting the quota, doing the examination, having a happening, going back to nature, or an audit by the IRS, marching in unity to military cadence. In the man stakeholder relationships, we have many THIRD VOICES to consider. There is an entire postmodern chorus of voices to play out a dialog in our head. But, to really get at stakeholder influence means doing more than stakeholder-mind games. It means seeing the Other face-to-face and listening to the voiceless until we can hear. 

Giving service to the environment, to the homeless, to the sub-contract labor force of the world is a step to be taken. Service is a surrender of self to a greater good. It is a commitment to the whole of humanity and the whole of nature. To serve is to put the other first, and the self last. To serve is to listen for the Third and the Fourth voices.

Of course, what a life of selfless service means is far from obvious. does it mean that we simply ask other people what they want us to do and proceed to do it? Does it mean that we decide what is best for other human beings and impose our vision on them? (Branden, p. 251).

With the advent of the customer-focused organization, the question of giving service to customers is critical. The customer is given more influence over the organization. The individual employee is given more freedom to serve. But should the employee be sacrificed, become an automaton, a paid part-timer, living on the edge of starvation? The serving person serves the internal and the external customer, but also serves the impartial spectator, the Third Voice Smith says is within. The serving person has the integrity to give the person who receives his or her services "added value" but not at the expense of their own dignity. In the age of rage, of going postal, of airline passengers attacking stewardess, of customers grabbing their waitress or waiter, a sense of INDIVIDUAL is necessary for survival. There is a negotiation between the server and the customer about their shared vision for a particular service, but one that needs to include an internalized spectator looking at the ethics of such a relationship. I think you ask both the server and the customer what each wants, how each wants to proceed, and work to make this relationship productive and ethical for both parties. But, that influence has to be de-centered beyond the bureaucratic clockwork and the media machine.

Skeptical Interpretation of Postmodern Influence.

The new industrial relations of TQM is supposed to increase worker control over their jobs, give workers more brain-involvement, and lead to long-term job security.

1. Empowerment. When is the last time someone tried to empower you?

Boj: I went to a feminist conference and asked the question: How can I as a white, male empower women in my MBA classes? The response I got back, shocked me.

Feminist: You! You can not empower women, they empower themselves.

Empowerment implies that you have been disempowered. To be disempowered is to be on the margins, to be peripheral to power, and even to have access to power denied. We think much of what is called empowerment is very token. Is it empowering to be able to turn in a suggestion?

 

Usually when someone says: "I am going to empower you" it translates to: "I am going to abandon you and let you do all this work I did not want to do."

Boj: "Bob, I am gong to empower you to write this next chapter, while I go out for a beer!"

In Japan, workers are empowered by Toyota to live in dormitories, think about their job every waking minute, and meet in the evenings to write suggestions on ways to influence higher levels of performance. Workers are also empowered to work shifts that rotate day to evening from one week to the next so that the organization can balance the efficiency of production between shifts. It is good for the company, but over time individual's internal clocks go bonkers and the slow grind of fatigue and sleeplessness sets in. You do not know if it is day or night.

2. Excellence and Postmodern Influence. The excellence literature of Peters and Waterman, and Deal and Kennedy celebrates management massaging corporate culture to influence people to higher levels of quality performance. Instead of the employee becoming the little cog in the machine, the postmodern employee is the "little pledge in the fraternal corporate culture." "Management is urged to become directly and purposefully involved in determining what employees should think, believe or value" (Willmott: 1992: 61). Autonomy and self-management are words used to induce people into gazing and influencing their own performance to meet corporate canons of excellence. Willmott makes the point that as the corporate culture grows in strength, there is a de-differentiation of economy and culture through the calculated manipulation of celebration, ritual, fun, and "attaboys." The Nordstrom salesperson has become the "Nordie" who works through lunch and dinner to delivery packages, write birthday notes, and check the stock in the backroom.

3. Under the Work Influence. Americans are becoming a society of employed workaholics and unemployed homeless. Americans have recently surpassed the Japanese in number of working hours. While the Europeans are curbing their work hours to 35 and the Japanese are anticipating less work hours, American workers, particularly salaried workers are asked to stretch the work day.

4. Theory Y. McGregor (1960) argued that the way to influence people to higher levels of performativity was to fulfill their "higher order" needs for "self-esteem" and "self-actualization." The missing element is the employee's voice and point of view. Theory Y focuses exclusively on manger's assumptions. Employees have no role to play in the process.

5. Employee Involvement. Workers get to participate in increasing their own workload and their own surveillance. Fewer layers of management save money as the worker self-supervises. Fewer inspectors saves money. Having the worker do time and motion studies of their own behavior lowers supervision and inspection costs. One mechanism for employee involvement is multi-skilling. The multi-skilled worker is said to have more influence over their work process and their flexible usage within the company. In reality, team leaders do skilled jobs, not by regular team members. But, few companies invest the training to so that people can do very professional skills. Multi-skilling generally means that management can assign the worker to clean up, deliveries, preventative maintenance, or doing multiple unskilled assembly tasks within the same 60-second cycle time. In the French Taylorism there is multi-skilling and a respect for employees negotiating for more skill as part of the labor process. 

Toyota's idea of employee involvement is pre-involvement screening. Worker's who are very young and agile and all male are put on the Kyoto assembly teams. Only those young people who can potentially master the rapid pace practices and team culture of Toyota are selected. It is influence by selection.

6. Racial Stereotypes. America managers are doubtful that Japanese team methods could be used in the U.S. Racial stereotypes are the explanation. One stereotype said that Japanese are more "docile" and willing to follow orders unquestioningly. Another said that Japanese methods could be applied only in Japan because of its "homogeneous" culture, a culture that stresses values such as hard work and loyalty to the employer.

7. MAD. The skeptical side of Healthy, Happy, Terrific (HHT) is Manipulated, Alienated, Damaged (MAD). Positive mental attitudes are one thing, but people at all levels of the organizations are MAD. Lambs to the slaughter. Beware!

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

Pre-modern man is illustrated by the self reliance of Ben Franklin and the discipline of the printing apprentice. Positive mental attitudes are apparent for both Ben and the apprentice. The influence of the craft, guild, and God are apparent. The virtues advocated by Adam Smith and Ben Franklin can be useful survival tools in the postmodern condition of global transnational capitalism.

Modern influence presents the "rational" animal who complies. The strictures of scientific management, the rewards and punishment, and the peer groups manipulation of Human Relationalists are tools for compliance. Even scientific management is a better factory system than what many sub-contract factory workers are experiencing in third world nations and in the bowels of many first world metropolitan cities. 

We bridge the modernist period with a visit with John Wayne and Dustin Hoffman where the pre-modern man meets the postmodern one. The key to the postmodern project is the individual - de-centered, fragmented, diverse. In response to many voices the individual is stronger, but in response to strong culture facets such as employee involvement, empowerment, and work influence the individual is often weakened. With stronger individualism, their is a ray of hope that their will be spin off benefits to the customer, organization, and community. But, beware postmodernism in pre-modern and modern disguises!

We assume that pre, mod, and post influences are very much alive today, influencing us, but a bit out of balance for the postmodern condition.  

STUDY GUIDE

1. What is the difference between solace, comply, and individual?

2. Who was Ralph? So what?

3. What was Ben Franklin's method for self-development? How does it differ from virtues advocated by Adam Smith?

4. What was the pre-modern relation between thinking and success?

5. What are the steps in acting enthusiastic?

6. What is the Jerry Asam Story?

7. Why are feelings choices?

8. What is the meaning of Healthy, Happy, and Terrific?

9. What is the story basis for Need for Achievement?

10. What are the differences between pre-modern and modern influence?

11. What is the significance of the Wayne-Hoffman stories?

12. Compare the discourse terms of Wayne-Hoffman?

13. How was discourse revised in the Edison history books?

14. Give a postmodern critique of human relations?

15. What is a postmodern critique of behaviorism?

16. What does de-centered influence mean?

17. What do the letters in individual stand for?

18. What is the relation between being and Individual and being ecocentric? 

 

 

 

 

NOTES

  1. Notes and Queries, 1888, Volume 4: 451.
  2. Reprinted in Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. X (1740): p. 239-240. Original source: The Craftsman, Volume 24, May, 1740. By the 1800's Chapel rituals were outlawed in Germany because they encouraged drinking and hazing.
  3. Chapels were organized into loosely coupled societies, with democratic meetings. The Chapel was the forerunner of trade unions and for owners, trade associations. See Boje, David, 1983 (ibid). Child, John 1967 Industrial relations in the British Printing Industry. London: George Allen and Urwin, Ltd.; Musson, A.E. 1954. The Typographical Association London: Oxford University Press; Powell, Leona Margaret 1926. History of the United Typothetae of America. University of Chicago Press.
  4. Quote is from Oschilewski as cited in Thompson, Lawrence S. (1947). "The customs of the chapel." Journal of American Folklore, 60 (Oct.-Dec.) #238: 329-344. See Avis 1971 The Early Printers' Chapel in England London: F.C. Avis. See summary of these rituals in Boje, David. "The printer's eye: the Aesthetics of technology." UCLA working paper 12-83 (December 1983): 8-11.
  5. Franklin, Benjamin. 1806. Franklin's Works. Vol 1.
  6. Cannon, I.C. 1968. "The roots of organizations among journeymen printers." Journal of Printing Historical Society, 4: 99-107.
  7. Moxon, Joseph 1683. "Ancient customs used in a printing-house." IN Herbert Davis and Harry Carter (Eds.) Mechanic Exercises on the Whole: Art of Printing 1683-4. pp. 323-286. London: Oxford University Press, 1958 edition. See page 100.
  8. Source: the Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin as cited in Napoleon Hill and W. Clement Stone Success through a Positive Mental Attitude, New York: Pocket Books, 1977: 124.
  9. Success through a Positive Mental Attitude New York: Pocket Books, 1977: 49.
  10. Ibid Most of these sayings are contained in Stone and Hill.
  11. Based on Bettger's book: How I raised myself from Failure to Success in Selling, Prentice Hall. Quoted in Hill and Stone, p. 141-2.
  12. Napoleon Hill and W. Clement Stone, 1987. New York: Pocket Books: 179-182.
  13. Marcuse, Herbert. One-Dimensional man Boston: Beacon Press, 1964: ix.
  14. Atkinson, J. W. "Towards experimental analysis of human motivation in terms of motives, expectancies, and incentives." In J.W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, and society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1958: 193.
  15. Cooper, Robert, and Gibson Burrell. 1988. "Modernism, Postmodernism and Organizational Analysis: An Introduction, Part I." Organization Studies, 9 (1): 91-112.
  16. Nathaniel Branden, Honoring the self: The psychology of confidence and respect, Toronto: Bantam Books, 1985: 235.

McGregor, Douglas. 1960. The Human Side of Enterprise. New York:

 

 

 

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