STORYTELLING ORGANIZATION: A Wikipedia page by David Boje created Mar 5, 2011, and purged by the antenarrative-police of Wikipedia on Mar 6, 2011)


Introduction The study of '''storytelling organizations''', treats the collective activities of storytelling organization as the level of analysis. Storytelling is actually several genres that inter-relate: [[narrative|story]], [[storytelling]] and antenarrative within the context of an organization. Morson (1994) looks at retrospective (backshadowing), more emergent (sideshadowing), and future-oriented (foreshadowing) of storytelling. This suggests an extension of Weickian sensemaking from retrospective, to emergent in living story relationality in more immediate present, and the future-shaping antenarrative (Boje, 2008a, 2011).

Work on [[storytelling organization]] as its own level of analysis began in 1991 <ref>[[David Boje]], Boje, D.M. "Organizations as Storytelling Networks: A Study of Story Performance in an Office-Supply Firm," Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 36, 1991: 106-126. </ref>. McCloskey (1990) asserts that economists use narratives and stories to legitimate economic theories about the recurrences of economic cycles:
"If the stories of past business cycles could predict the future there would be no surprises, and by that fact no business cycles" (McCloskey, 1990: 96). 

==Narrative==
Aristotle (350 BCE) defined narrative by its elements (plot, character, theme, dialog, rhythm, and spectacle) that has a beginning, middle, and end. Narrative for millennia has required story to be “ . . . a whole . . . a whole is that which has beginning, middle, and end” (Aristotle, 350 BCE: 1450b: 25, p. 233). Bakhtin (1973: 12), for example says, “Narrative genres are always enclosed in a solid and unshakable monological framework” and this is in contrast the more "dialogical manner of story" (1981: 60). Not all narratives are linear, or monological. See, for examples works by James Joyce that are [[nonlinear narrative]]. Yet, much of the narrative work in organizations does focus on linear sequence plots, and this may be a good performance consequence. Czarniawska (2004), for example, has argued convincingly that higher performing long-lived organizations have petrified narratives that embed cultural values and do not change over time or circumstance. Besides Bakhtin, de Certeau (1984) and Derrida (1979: 94) see value in a contrast between narratives and story. Weick's (1995) approach to narrative is that it has a beginning, middle, and end, and is retrospective [backward looking] sensemaking. 

==Living Story==
Gabriel (2000) for example asserts that story is something more than narrative, in that it is emotive and expressive.

==Antenarrative==
Antenarrative is a word and concept I invented (Boje, 2001a) and has been empirically studied in refereed-journal publications by authors such as Barge (2004), Dalcher and Devin (2003), Collins and Rainwater (2005), Erickson et al (2005, 2006), Vickers (2005), and Yolles (2007), and Vaara, E., & Tienari, forthcoming in Journal of Organization Science).

Antenarrative is defined as a bet on the future pattern, in (more or less) authentic scenario of event-space. It is also a before narrative that serves as a hypothesis of the trajectory of unfolding events that avoids the pitfalls of premature narrative closure (Boje, 2001a, 2007, 2008).

Antenarratives are being studied in four forms:
1. Linear
2. Cyclical
3. Spiral
4. Assemblage Rhizomes

Morson (1994: 63-66), for example, describes the vortex spiral. This is an antenarratives-spiral where there is more freedom of movements and choice away from the center than in a linear-antenarrative, or a cyclic-antenarrative with obdurate stages or sequences that recur. Rhizome antenarratives, on the other hand, are nonlinear iterative processes that do not behave as stable linearity or cyclic-antenarratives (Deleuze & Guattari, 1987). In accounting, Bougen and Young (2000) looked at the rhizomatic processes of bank fraud and auditors’ attempts to detect bank fraud. Auditors using linear analyzes could not detect an already escaping present. Boje and colleagues’ [[storytelling organization]] work traces patterns of rhizomatic antenarrative clustering in the Enron crisis (Boje & Rosile, 2002, 2003; Boje, Rosile, Durant, & Luhman, 2004; Smith, Boje, & McClendes, 2010).  

==References==

Ambrosini, V.; & Bowman, C. Tacit Knowledge: Some Suggestions for Operationalization. Journal of Management Studies, Volume 38, Issue 6, pages 811–829, September 2001. PDF available.

Aristotle. (350BCE, 1954). Aristotle: Rhetoric and poetics. Introduction by Friedrich Solmsen; rhetoric translated by W. Rhys Roberts; poetics translated by Ingram Bywater. New York: The Modern Library (Random House).

Bakhtin, Mikhail. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Barge, J.K. (2004) `Antenarrative and Managerial Practice' , Communication Studies 55(1): 106-27.

Boje, D.M. (1991). Organizations as Storytelling Networks: A Study of Story Performance in an Office-Supply Firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 36, 1991: 106-126.

Boje, D.M. (2001). Narrative Methods for Organizational and Communication Research, London:  Sage.

Boje, D. M. (2007a). Chapter 13 Living Story: From Wilda to Disney, pp.330-354. Handbook of Narrative Inquiry: Mapping a New Methodology. Edited by Jean Clandinin, London: Sage.

Boje, D. M. (2007b). "The Antenarrative Cultural Turn in Narrative Studies" in Mark Zachry & Charlotte Thralls (Eds.) Communicative Practices in Workplaces and the Professions: Cultural Perspectives on the Regulation of Discourse and Organizations.

Boje, D. M. (2007c). Globalization Antenarratives. Pp. 505-549, Chapter 17 in Albert Mills, Jeannie C. Helms-Mills & Carolyn Forshaw (Eds). Organizational Behavior in a Global Context. Toronto: Garamond Press.

Boje, D. M. (2008). Storytelling Organizations, London: Sage.

Boje, D. M. (2011). The Future of Storytelling and Organizations: An Antenarrative Handbook. NY/London: Routledge.

Boje, D. M. & Baskin, K. (2010). Dancing to the Music of Story. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Press. See Chapter 1 on complexity.


Boje, D. M. & Grace Ann Rosile (2002). Enron Whodunit? Ephemera. Vol 2(4), pp. 315-327.

Boje, D. M. & Grace Ann Rosile (2003). Life Imitates Art: Enron’s Epic and Tragic Narration. Management Communication Quarterly. Vol. 17 (1): 85-125.

Boje, D. M., Rosile, G.A., Durant, R.A. & Luhman, J.T. (2004. Enron Spectacles: A Critical Dramaturgical Analysis. Special Issue on Theatre and Organizations edited by Georg Schreyögg and Heather Höpfl, Organization Studies, 25(5):751-774.

Boje, D. M.; Rosile, G. A.; & Gardner, C. L. (2007). "Antenarratives, Narratives and Anaemic Stories" Chapter 4, pp. 30-45, Storytelling in Management, Editors: Ms. Nasreen Taher and Ms. Swapna Gopalan, Publisher: The Icfai University Press, India, First Edition.

Boyce, M.E.(1996). Organizational story and storytelling: a critical review. Journal of organizational change management, [PDF] from personalimageanzeigen.

Collins, D. & Rainwater, K. 2005. "Managing change at Sears: a sideways look at a tale of corporate transformation". Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 18, No. 1: 16-30.

Czarniawska, B. (2004). Narratives in social science research. London: Sage.

Dalcher, D. & Drevin, L. (2003). "Learning from information systems failures by using narrative and antenarrative methods". Proceedings of SAICSIT, pages 137-142.

de Certeau, M. (1984). Practices in everyday life. Steven F. Rendall, Trans. Berkeley/London: University of California Press.

Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F. (1987). A thousand plateaus:  Capitalism and schizophrenia, (translation B. Massumi). Minneapolis:  University of Minneapolis Press.

Denning, Stephen. 2007. Effective storytelling: strategic business narrative techniques. Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 34 (1): 42 - 48.

Derrida, J. (1979). Living on: Borderlines. In H. Bloom (Ed.), Deconstruction and criticism (pp.75–176). London: Continuum Publications.

Eriksen, M. & Colleagues, (2006).  “Antenarratives about Leadership and Gender in the U.S. Coast Guard.  Tamara Journal for Critical Organization Inquiry, 5(4), 162-173.

Eriksen, M., Van Echo, K., Harmel, A., Kane, J., Curran, K., Gustafson, G., & Schults, R.  (2005). Conceptualizing and Engaging in Organizational Change as an Embodied Experience within a Practical Reflexivity Community of Practice: Gender Performance at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy.  Tamara Journal for Critical Organization Inquiry, 4 (1), 75-80.

Gabriel, Yiannis. (2000) Storytelling in organizations, New York: Oxford University Press.

Hazen, M.A.(1993) "Towards Polyphonic Organization", Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 6 Iss: 5, pp.15 - 26

McCloskey, D. (1990). On narrative: If you’re so smart: The narrative of economic expertise. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Moeran, Brian. 2007. A Dedicated Storytelling Organization: Advertising Talk in Japan. Human Organization. Vol 66 (2): 160-170.

Morson, G. S. (1994). Narrative and freedom: The shadows of time. New Haven/London: Yale University Press.

Smith, F.L.; Keyton, J. (2001)..Organizational Storytelling: Metaphors for Relational Power and Identity Struggles. Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 15 no. 2 149-182

Sole, D.; & Wilson, D.G. (1999). Storytelling in organizations: The power and traps of using stories to share knowledge in organizations[PDF] from providersedge.com

Vaara, E., & Tienari, J. Forthcoming. On the narrative construction of multinational corporations: An antenarrative analysis of legitimation and resistance in a cross-border merger. Organization Science. Published online in Articles in Advance, November 30, 2010. http://orgsci.journal.informs.org/cgi/content/abstract/orsc.1100.0593v1

Vickers, M. H. (2005). Illness, work and organisation: Postmodern perspectives, antenarratives and chaos narratives for the reinstatement of voice. Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organisation Science, 3(2), pp. 1-15.Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking. London: Sage.

Yolles, M. (2007). The dynamics of narrative and antenarrative and their relation to story. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 20, No. 1: 74 – 94.
Weick, K. E. (1995) Sensemaking. London: Sage.

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