Albrecht, T. L. 1988 "Communication and personal control in empowering organizations," In Anderson, J. A. (ed.), Communication Yearbook, 11. Newbury Park, Ca: Sage, pp. 380-90.

Alvesson, M. and Deetz, S. 1996. "Critical theory and postmodernism approaches to organizational studies." In S.R. Clegg, C. Hardy and W.R. Nord (Eds). Pp. 191-217. Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage.

Alvesson, M. and Willmott, H. 1996. Making Sense of Management: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage.

Bailey, R. 1995. How to Empower People at Work: A Guide to becmong a Green-Fingered Manager. Didcot, Management Books.

Barker, J. R. 1993. "Tightening the iron cage: concertive control in self-managing teams," Administrative Science Quarterly, 38: 408-37.

Batstone, E. 1979. "Industrial democracy." In T. R Burns, L. E. Kalsson, & V Rus (eds.) Work and Power: The liberation of work and the control of political power. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Bergquist, W., , W., W. 1993. The Postmodern Organiztaion: Mastering the Art of Irreversible Change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Best, S. & Kellner, D. 1997. The Postmodern Turn. NY and London: Guilford Press.

Block, P. 1987. The Empowered Manager: Postitive Political Skills at Work. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Bloomfield, D. (ed.). 1920. Modern Industrial Movements. NY: The H. W. Wilson Company.

Boje, D. 1995. "Stories of the storytelling organization: A postmodern analysis of Disney as "Tamara-land." Academy of Management Journal. 38 (4), 997-1035.

Boje, D. M. & Dennehy, R. F. 1993. Managing in the postmodern world: America's revolution against exploitation (1994, 2nd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Boje, D. M. Fitzgibbons, D. E., and Steingard, D. S. 1996. "Storytelling at Administrative Science Quarterly: Warding off the postmodern barbarians." Pp. 60-94 in Boje, D. M., Gephart, R. P. Jr., & Thatchenkery, T. J. 1996 Postmodern Management and Organization Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Boje, D. M., Gephart, R. P. Jr., & Thatchenkery, T. J. 1996. Postmodern Management and Organization Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Borman, E. G. 1988. "Symbolic convergence theory: a communication formulations based on hommo narrens," Journal of Communication. 35: 128-39.

Brandeis, L. D. 1934. The Curse of Bigness: Miscellaneous Papers. NY: Viking.

Braverman, H., H., H.1974. Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. NY: Monthly Review press.

Burrell, G. 1988. "Modernism, postmodernism, and organizational analysis 2: The contribution of Michael Foucault." Organization Studies. 9 (2). 221-235.

Calas, M. and Smircich, L. 1996. "Not ahead of her time: Reflections on Mary Parker Follett as a prophet of management." Organization 3 (1): 147-152.

Calley, D. 1988. "Part moon, part traveling salesman: Conversations with Ivan Illich." Taped radio broadcasts produced and written by D. Calley.

Clegg. S. R. 1989. Frameworks of Power. London: Sage.

Clegg, S.R. 1990. Modern Organizations: organization studies in the postmodern world. London: Sage.

Clegg, S. R., and Hardy, C. 1996. "Conclusion: Representations" In S. R. Clegg, Hardy, C., & Nord, W. R. (Eds.) pp. 676-708. Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage.

Cole, G. D. H. 1919a "Reviving the Guild idea." Living Age. 302: 214-217. (July 26).

Cole, G.D.H. 1919b. "National Guilds movement in Great Britain." Monthly Labor Review. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 9: 24-32 (July)

Collins, D. 1998. "Towards a more challenging 'vision' of empowerment." Business Research Yearbook: Global Business Prespectives. Biberman, J. and Alkhafaji, A. (Eds.). vol. 5: 694-698.

Conger, J. A., and Kanungo, R. N. 1988. "The empowerment process: Interating theory and process." Academy of Management Review, 5: 501-508.

Cooper, R. 1989. "Modernism, postmodernism, and organiztional analysis 3: The contribution of Jacques Derrida." Organization Studies, 10(4): 479-502.

Cooper, R., and G. Burrell 1988. "Modernism, postmodernism, and organizational analysis: An introduction." Organization Studies. 9 (1), 91-112.

Croly, H. 1914. Progressive Democracy. NY: Macmillan

Crozier, M. 1964. The Bureaucratic Phenomenon. London: Tavistock.

Daft, R. L. 1995. Organiztion Theory and Design. 5th Ed. Minneapolis, MN: West Publishing Co.

Dallmayr, F. R. 1993. G.W.F. Hegel: Modernity and Politics. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Debord, G. 1967. La Société du Spectacle was first published in 1967 by Editions Buchet-Chastel (Paris); it was reprinted in 1971 by Champ Libre (Paris).The full text is available at

Derber, M. 1970. The American Idea of Industrial democracy, 1865-1965. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

de Schweinitz, D. 1949. Labor and Management in a Common Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: Harvard university Press.

Fleming, P. C. 1991. "Empowerment strengthens the rock." Management Review. (December): 34-37.

Follett, M. P. 1898. The Speaker of the House of Representatives. NY: Longmans, Green and Co.

Follett, M.P. 1918. The New State. NY: Longmans, Green and Co.

Follett, M.P. 1924. Creative Experience. NY: Longmans, Green and Co.

Follett, M.P. 1941. Dynamic Administration: The Collected Papers of Mary Parker Follett. Metcalf, H.C. and Urwick, L. (Eds.). NY: Harper & Bros.

Foucault, M. 1977. Surveiller et punir: Naissance de la prison [Discipline and punish]. Paris: Gallimard.

Foucault, M. 1988. "Technologies of the self." In L. Martin, H. Gutman, and P. Hutton (eds.), Technologies of the self. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Fox, E. M. 1968. "Mary Parker Follett: The enduring contribution." Public Administration Review 28(6): 520-529

Gold, C. 1986. Labor-Management Committees: Confrontation, cooptation, or cooperation? NY: ILR Press, New York State School of Industrial and labor Relations, Cornell University.

Gompers, S. 1920. Labor and the Employer. NY: E. P. Dutton.

Hassard, J. & Parker, M. 1993. Postmodernism and Organizations (Eds.). London: Sage.

Hardy, C. (1998). The power behind empowerment: Implications for research and practice. Human Relations, 51 (4), 451-482.

Hatch, M. J. 1997. Organization Theory: A postmodern perspective. London: Oxford University Press.

Hegel, G. W. F. 1975. Philosophy of Right. Trans. T. M. Knox. Oxford: Claredon Press.

Hirshhorn, L. 1997. Reworking Authority: Leading and Following the the Postmodern Organization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Jacques, R. 1996. Manufacturing the Employee: Management Knowledge from the 9th to 21st Centuries. London: Sage.

Jameson, F. 1991. Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham, N.C: Duke University Press.

Kane, K., and Montgomery, K. 1997. "A Theory of Dysempowerment" in Biberman, J. & Alkhafaji, A. Business Research Yearbook, Saline, Michigan: McNaughton & Gunn

Kasmir, S. 1996. The Myth of Mondragon: Cooperatives, Politics, and Working-Class Life in a Basque Town. NY: State University of New York Press.

Kauffman, A., Zacharias, L., & Karson, M. 1995. Managers Vs. Owners: The Struggle for Corporate Control in American Democracy. NY: Oxford University Press.

Kilduff, M. & A. Mehra 1997. "Postmodernism and organizational research," Academy of Management Review, 22: 453-481.

Korten, D. C. 1995. When Corporations Rule the World. San Francisco: Ca: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Lasswell, H. 1930. Psychopathology and Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lawrence, D. 1988. The Third Way: The Promise of Industrial Democracy. London: Routledge.

Lippmann, W. 1925. The Phantom Public. NY: Macmillan.

Lyotard, J.F. 1984. The postmodern condition: A report on knowledge. (G. Bennington & B. Massouri, Trans.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Manz, C. C. & Sims, H. P. Jr. 1993. Business without Bosses: How self-managing teams are building high-performing companies. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Miller, E. J. 1922. "Workmen's representation in industrial government." University of Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences. September-December Vol. X (3 and 4): 1-182.

Miller, P., and O'Leary, T. 1989. "Hierarchies and American ideals, 1900-1940." Academy of Management Review, 14: 250-265.

Mills, A. J. and Simmons, T. 1995. Reading Organization Theory: A Critical Approach. Toronto, On.: Garamond Press.

O'Connor, E. S. 1998a. "Political work: Ordway Tead's concept of industrial democracy." Paper presented in August Academy of Management Meeting in symposium, "Early liberationary impulses in the American workplace: A historical examination of empowerment."

O'Connor, E.S. 1998b. "Integrating Follett: History, Philosophy, and Management." Journal of Management History, in press.

O'Connor, E.S. 1999a. "Minding the workers: The meaning of 'human' and 'human relations' in Elton Mayo." Organization 6(2): 223-246.

O'Connor, E.S. 1999b. "The politics of management thought: A case study of Harvard Business School and the Human Relations School." Academy of Management Review, 24 (1): 117-131.

O'Connor, E.S. 1999c. "Participation versus rehabilitation: Early 20th-Century debates on the moral purpose of the firm." In press, Proceedings of the 1999 Annual Meeting of the National Academy of Management.

Pacanowsky, M. E. 1988. "Communication in the empowering organization," In Anderson, J. A. (ed.) Communication Yearbook. 11, Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Pp. 356-79.

Parker, M. 1993. "Industrial relations myth and shop floor reality: the 'team' concept in the auto industry," In Lichtenstein, N. & Howell, J. H. (Eds.( Industrial Democracy in America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Parker, M. and Slaughter, J. 1988. "Managing by stress: the dark side of the team concept." ILR Report, 26(1): 19-23.

Patton, P. 1998. "Foucault's subject of power." In J. Moss (ed.) The Later Foucault. Pp. 64-77. London: Sage.

Plumb, G. E. and Roylance, W. G. 1923. Industrial Democracy: A Plan for its Achievement. NY: B. W. Huebsch.

Putnam, L., Phillips, N., & Chapman, P. 1996. "Metaphors of communication and organization." In S. R. Clegg, Hardy, C., & Nord, W. R. (Eds.) pp. 375-408. Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage.

Rosenau, P. 1992. Post-modernism and the Social Sciences: Insights, Inroads, and Intrusions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Sennett, R. 1981. Authority. NY: Random House

Schwartz, H. S. 1994 Review of Boje, D. & R. F. Dennehy "Managing in the postmodern world: America's revolution against exploitation." Academy of Management Review. 20 (1). 215-220.

Spreitzer, G. 1995. "An empirical examination of a comprehensive model of psychological empowerment in the workplace." American Journal of Community Psychology, 23: 601-629.

Spreitzer, G. 1996. "Social structural characteristics of psychological empowerment." Academy of Management Journal, 39: 483-504.

Strauss, G. & Rosenstein, E. 1971. "Workers participation: A critical view." Industrial Relations. 9 (February): 197-214.

Tarbell, I. M. 1916. New Ideals in Business: An Account of Their Practice and Their Effects upon Men and Profits. NY: D. Appleton.

Tead, O. 1938. The Case for Democracy and its Meaning for Modern Life. NY: Association Press.

Tead, O. 1939. New Adventures in Democracy: Practical Applications of the Democratic Idea. NY: Whittlesey House.

Tead, O., and Metcalf, H. 1933. Personnel Administration: Its Principles and Practices. NY; McGraw Hill.

Thompson, P. 1993. "Postmodernism: Fatal distraction." Pp. 183-203 in J. Hassard & M. Parker Postmodernism and Organizations. London: Sage.

Vogt, J. F. and Murrell, K. L. 1990. Empowerment in Organizations: How to Spark Exceptional Performance. San Diego.


1. 1 It is customary to cite Debord (1967) with the section number of his manuscript.

2. 2 Comments from Robin Clair in her presentation to the critical postmodern stream of the June, 1999 Organization Behavior Teaching Conference, Las Cruces, New Mexico.

3. 3 New Republic, vol. 19, June, 1919: 241, as cited in Miller (1922: 160).


Press Left Arrow to go Back or Right Arrow to Return to 1st Page.


This paper proceeds From Title/Abstract  through 7 steps: (1) briefly reviewing the current empowerment-disempowerment debate; (2) contextualizing Mary Parker Follett's work with a review of the democratic workplace movements of Marxist socialism, trade unionism, guilds, cooperatives, and non-union workers' councils; (3) discussing Follett's theory of co-active power circularity, with its roots in Hegel's and Dewey's philosophy; (4) summarizing Clegg's circuits of power theory; (5) combining Follett's power-as-capacity concept with Clegg's circuits of power in an assimilative reading we term "co-power," which can move us beyond today's empowerment-disempowerment duality; (6) drawing implications for organizational development and change practices regarding co-power as a way of linking micro and macro issues; and (7) offering conclusions regarding co-power as a way of increasing the effectiveness of organizational change efforts. (And References).