Where is the Power in Empowerment? by David M. Boje & Grace Ann Rosile


(1) Review  current empowerment-disempowerment debate;
(2) contextualizing Mary Parker Follett's work with a review of the democratic workplace movements of Marxist socialism, trade unionism, guilds, cooperatives, and non-union workers' councils;
(3) discussing Follett's theory of co-active power circularity, with its roots in Hegel's and Dewey's philosophy;
(4) summarizing Clegg's circuits of power theory; See Diagram.
(5) combining Follett's power-as-capacity concept with Clegg's circuits of power in an assimilative reading we term "co-power," which can move us beyond today's empowerment-disempowerment duality (See Table);
(6) drawing implications for organizational development and change practices regarding co-power as a way of linking micro and macro issues; and
(7) offering conclusions regarding co-power as a way of increasing the effectiveness of organizational change efforts.
(And References).