Web Paper Title: "Myers Briggs, XYZ Leadership, and Team Roles" by David M. Boje, Ph.D.  January 21, 2001 David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box
Born on: January 21, 2001

STEP ONE Take the M-B test on line from HUMAN METRICS -[PRESS DO IT BUTTON WHEN YOU ARE ON THEIR SITE]. There version of M-B, will assign you to one of 16 personality types based upon your answers. Please write down both the Letters and the Percentile Scores. Click on the Guides that follow the test. Print them out for later use.

If you are an ST, or J-anything, after taking test, please skip Archetype info below, and proceed directly to Step 2. Others continue to read about archetypes.

About Your Archetype

Now you are ready for more background on archetypes.  Carl Gustav Jung's (1930s) four types (thinking, intuition, sensing and feeling) are rooted in the Greek god archetypes, Apollo, Hermes, Dionysus, and Ares, as well as to an even more ancient typology of archetypes: choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, and melancholy (See Table 1A).

Table One A: Associations of M-B with other Trait Tests


    Practical, Specific, Feet on ground, Details, Concrete

    1. Phlegmatic

    2. Greek God Dionysus

    3. Compromise conflict style

    4. Reflective Observation learning style

    5. Medicine Wheel - West - Bear, Introspection

    6. Archetype: Warrior/ Hunter (Military)

    7. Scientist/ Engineer


    General, Abstract, Head in clouds, Possibilities, Theoretical

    1. Sanguine

    2. Greek God Hermes

    3. Avoidance conflict style

    4. Active Experimentation learning style

    5. Medicine Wheel: East - Eagle, Illumination 

    6. Archetype: Shaman/ Medicine Man (Religion)

    7. Technicians


    Analytical, Clarity, Head, Justice & Rules

    1. Choleric

    2. Greek God Zeus/Apollo 

    3. Competition conflict style

    4. Abstract Conceptualization learning style

    5. Medicine Wheel: North - Buffalo, Wisdom

    6. Archetype: Chief (State)

    7. Managers



    Subjective, Harmony, Heart, Mercy, Circumstances

    1. Melancholy 

    2. Greek God Ares

    3. Collaboration/Accommodation
      conflict style

    4. Concrete Experimentation

    5. Medicine Wheel: South - Mouse, Trust

    6. Archetype: Fool (Art)

    7. Critic


    Outgoing, Publicly expressive, Interacting, Speaks then thinks, Gregarious



    Quiet, Reserved, Concentrating, Thinks then speaks, Reflective


    Structured, Time oriented, Decisive, Makes lists (uses them), Organizes


    Flexible, Open ended, Exploring, Makes lists (loses them), Spontaneous

Adapted from Jung (Source), Thompson (1971), Mitroff (1983), & Gray (1996).

Consider your archetype "Archetypes are, by definition, factors and motifs that arrange the psychic elements into certain images, characterized as archetypal, but in such a way that they can be recognized only from the effects they produce [Jung - "A Psychological Approach to the Trinity," CW 11, par. 222, note 2.]. Each person has a persona, a public mask they wear to suit a particular situation. But they also have "shadow masks" the personalities they reject, refuse to see, and can not admit are there. Sartre had a similar idea, that people are aware of their being in the world (public mask), but also their shadow, the part of the moon, you can not see, but know or intuit that it is there.  In a group or team setting, the person you struggle with the most, may be your own projection of your Shadow Mask.  Do we scapegoat those who present to us our Shadow side?

ARCHETYPES - What is yours? - The contents of the collective unconscious are called archetypes. One archetype is the Shadow, representing sex and life instincts (survival and reproduction), the other our more public persona (our Mask for the World to see). There are mother archetypes (Mother Earth to indigenous tradition and Eve and Virgin Mary to Western tradition). Father archetype is guide and authority figure. There is a child archetype, such as the Christ child who is god-child and hero-child in Western tradition. The hero archetype is one who defeats the dragons and fights the shadow (archetype) as in Luke Skywalker's fight with the dark side of the force (and his Father archetype, Darth Vader), and rescues the maiden, his sister Princess Leia. Obi Wan Kenobi and Yoda are Luke's guides and mentors on the hero's journey.  "The anima is the female aspect present in the collective unconscious of men, and the animus is the male aspect present in the collective unconscious of women" (Boeree, 1997). The trickster archetype,  a clown or a magician can hamper the hero's quest. 

Jung argues we put a mask (persona) over our archetypes, so the public image is different from the archetype of our collective unconscious.

Psychologically . . . the archetype as an image of instinct is a spiritual goal toward which the whole nature of man strives; it is the sea to which all rivers wend their way, the prize which the hero wrests from the fight with the dragon [Jung "On the Nature of the Psyche," CW 8, par. 415.]


In Step 5 of this web, we look at how teams have shadow sides, and exclude the people they do not want to recognize.  We are all Tricksters, presenting one facade to the world, while another lies just in the shadow.  And in most organizations, certain persona (public archetypes) are more acceptable and legitimate than others.  This is what Nietzsche saw as the dance of Apollo (a Thinking Prince) and (Sensing) Dionysus, the thinker and the sensing archetypes.   They there is Zeus the tired and old King (Bureaucrat) who sits on the throne while the Prince casts about to engineer some new project.  Then there is Hermes (an Intuitive) who is a Trickster of sorts and Ares (who is in touch with Feelings). The archetypes are the mythical struggle of the Greek gods, each a part of our being and our shadow (Sartre's nothingness).

Relation of M-B archetypes to conflict and learning profiles The four basic elements (Thinking, iNtuitive, Sensing & Feeling) seem to be associated with the Thomas & Kilmann conflict styles of competition, avoidance, compromise and collaboration/ accommodation.  Not to mention the Kolb learning styles of Abstract Conceptualization , Active Experimentation, Reflective Observation, Concrete Experimentation. And M-B has a version called, Keirsey-Bates temperament assessments. The M-B is related to archetypes, such as the Irwin Thomas (and Thompson, 1971): Hunter, Fool, Leader, Shaman. There is another more ancient association of M-B with the Native American Medicine Wheel: North - Buffalo; Wisdom, East - Eagle, Illumination; West - Bear, Introspection; South - Mouse, Trust. Along with the Thinking, iNtuition, Sensing, and Feeling, there are four more labels to learn. These are Extraversion-Introversion, and Judging-Perceiving. Gray (1996: 207) argues the archetype of the Chief is associated with the State, while Shamanic tradition emerges from Religion, the Hunter/Warrior from the Military, and the Fool form Art.  See Table One for a summary. 

Proceed to Step 2