Web Paper Title: "Myers Briggs, XYZ Leadership, and Team Roles" by David M. Boje, Ph.D.  January 21, 2001- David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box
Born on: January 21, 2001

STEP 2 - VERIFY YOUR M-B Test result.

Review and print out your archetype (1 of 16) based upon test score in the test you took. STs (and most J's) proceed directly to Step 3. You are given your primary archetype in the test, but will have to discover your hidden (shadow) masks (keep reading). You can click on links below if you forgot to print out your analysis.

Table 1 - 16 Personality Archetypes with links




Lone Ranger (SUPER)




Mastermind (POLITICIAN)


Inspector (BUREAUCRAT)


Guardian (SUPER)




Architect (POLITICIAN)


Promoter (OPINION)




Crusader (HERO)


Engineer (PRINCE)


Sculptor (OPINION)


Adopter (REFORMER)


Charisma (HERO)


Valiant (PRINCE)


See David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box

Verifying Face Validity of your M-B - Please verify the results of your test by checking the definitions that follow. This is particularly necessary since M-B is based upon dualities (forced choices), whereas Jung argued for primary and secondary archetypes, as well as explorations of the 'middle,' between the archetypes. From the four M-B dualities (I-E, S-N, T-F, and J-P) come the sixteen archetype combinations. You can be   both, but the instrument will wash out the differences, in the forced-choice format. Jung believed we develop over time by becoming more conversant with all 16 types. Therefore, check the findings. Check the letter score you just derived for yourself with the 16 personality types in Table 1-B (above) and then contrast with the definitions and examples that follow.  Make sure you have selected the four letter pattern that describes you best. Make your own choices; do not be a slave to someone's survey. For more on scale and construct reliability, please see Thompson, B. &  G. Borrello (1986). Next, verify your score.

Frequencies of the types in the population tested can be found in Appendix A.

You can derive your Myers-Briggs (MB) letters, apart from any forced choice test, by answering the following four questions.

1. Where does your ENERGY come from? Introvert or Extrovert This is not about being shy or outgoing. This is a very different definition of the terms Introvert and Extrovert; it's about your energy.


E Extraverts want to take a break by joining the party and interacting socially to get energized. E's can do solitary activity, but find it draining.  They are drained by solitary situations (being at computer, hiking). E's energy is directed primarily outward, towards people and things outside of themselves. E's keep up many friendships.  According to Jung, E's  are "more influenced by their surroundings than by their own intentions" (302). They are energized by belonging to some crowd, society, being around people, and their sense perceptions. They will express their views out-loud to hear what they are thinking. Extroverts prefer relationships and the world of other people.  Extraverts are the most resistant to burnout, while introverts are the most susceptible (Layman & Guyden, 1997). 

I - Introverts take a break and head for the beach, watch TV, or read a book. They are drained by social situations, and keep a few close friends.  I's can be life of party but find it draining. They like alone time, and thinking before they speak.  I's energy is more directed inward (the world within), towards their own thoughts, ideas, perceptions, and reactions. Yet, according to Jung I's are more into the subjective experience, the world within (rather than the external world), and see the external world as somewhat threatening.  Crowds to not energize them. They trust their own judgments and perceptions more than those of others, and will think an idea before expressing it.  Isabel Briggs Myers (1995: 56) says Introverts are "more at home in the world of ideas than in the world of people and things."  Introverts live in the inner world of thoughts and ideas. 

Choose E or I and write it here ______________

2. What are your ways of KNOWING the world? Sensing or iNtuitive Focus is on kind of information you select when you are making choices and are about to lead.


S - Sensing (concrete, specific, applied) using qualitative data from the five senses. Sensing is concrete and practical (what is the physical reality here?). Sensing gathers knowledge about the more immediate and specific details of affect, emotion, and humanity. S's take fact courses that help them keep their feet on the ground. Sensing is more detailed oriented, able to find the trees in the forest. Sensing archetypes make up about 75% of the world population, the rest are intuitives who operate more by flashes of insight, hunches and imagination. Sensing people may miss the emerging patterns, since they focus on the stability. More short-term horizon.

N - iNtuition (conceptual, abstract, theoretical) able to see the big picture.   iNtuitives are looking more at meaning from a gestalt (or big picture) view, more apt to explore connections, and ask why. N's sign up for theory courses.  iNtuitives are able to find forests, but not see trees. They use telescopes more than microscopes.  iNtuitives see the gestalt and ask why the whole picture is the way it is. iNtuitives seek flashes of insight and imagination. They play a hunch without any practical facts.  Intuitives observe history and learn by experience. iNtuitives can see the chaos and complexity patterns and will trace nonlinear relationships. More long-term horizon.

Choose S or N and write it here _______________

3. What are your ways of making DECISIONS? Thinking or Feeling Recall the debates over values and data between Spock and Kirk in the Star Trek series over choices they must make in each situation and how they arrived at conclusions.


T - Thinking makes head-oriented choices (rational & cerebral). The are cool, objective, and very direct; their head rules their heart. Jung says "Thinking roughly speaking, tells you what [something] is" (306). Logic wins out over sentiments.  Like Mr. Spock in the old series, and Mr. Data in the new Star Trek series, these are thinking (rational, organized, unemotional, logical, analytical and impersonal) choice-makers who calculate risk factors for each choice.  Notice wrong reasoning. What little leadership research there is relating to M-B suggests that Thinking archetype correlate with more 'analytic' problem solving and decision preferences (Mattlin, Wethington & Kessler, 1990). 

F - Feeling is the heart choice (emotions count), and correlated more with concern for people. Heart rules, not head. Sentiment wins out over logic. F's are sensitive, concerned about people and being appreciated. They like things warm, harmonious, and friendly. Notice when people need support.  Decisions are based upon the personal consequences for other people.  Jung says F's focus on choices "agreeable or not, to be accepted or rejected (306)".  Feeling is also more human-values oriented, wanting to decide issues based upon spiritual, emotional, and human values, rather than be limited to impersonal analysis of impersonal data. 

Choose T or F and write it here ________________

4. What is your ATTITUDE TOWARDS LIFE AND THE WORLD?  Perceiving or Judging  Note: It has has nothing to do with whether a person is judgmental or perceptive. It is more about attitude and how they feel about closure.


P - Perceivers are flexible, like to keep their options open, are accepting of change, and very spontaneous. They have more of a play ethic, and will play with many possibilities before making a purchase, deciding on a mate, or choosing an occupation.  P's like to experience as much of the world as possible. P's are divergers, who expand the uniqueness and possibilities into endless variety and combinations, before deciding upon some plan of action. Perceivers take their time and keep their options open.  Perceivers have the attitude, I can create combinations that never were before if I am patient. Will change horse in midstream.

J - Judgers view  life as a series of choices to be made with categories, and plans that should be organized quickly. J's prefer a more ordered, structured, and systematic environment.  J's  are planned, orderly, and systematic, and driven by a strong work ethic.  Their attitude is to seek convergence and closure that they arrive at instantly.  Likes to have an issue settled, instead of up in the air. Will find a horse they love, and ride just the one.

Choose P or J and write it here _________________

Write the letter choices to the four questions here ____  ____  ____  ____  


Dilbert Joke Report (July, 2001) about P and J

True Tale 7 (Dilbert Zone).
We had a CONsultant come in to our company who helped us determine our personality types so that we could learn to work together better. She uses the Jung-Myers-Briggs Typology and one of the continuums it ranks you on is Judging versus Perceiving (J vs P). She paired up people who fell into the P category with people who were in the J category for an exercise in which they were supposed to try to think like the other. The president of our company said he didn't understand the purpose so she tried to explain it to him.

"You have a lot of J-ness, but not enough P-ness."

Needless to say the exercise was never completed.

You can get some idea of validity of the basic pattern of your letters by looking at the main two-letter combinations. Until rather recently, it was felt that the main types were just ST, SF, NT, and NF.

ST - Sensing-Thinking Types - Stress systematic decision making with quantitative, not qualitative data (Nutt, 1986). They establish order, set up control and manage with certainty (Mitroff & Mitroff, 1980).  They prefer tasks that are structured and prefer to take very few risks. There is a focus on immediate problems, the quick fix, and the use of standard producers and playing by the rules. STs dive into the details and look for specifics and some say to find step-by-step progress (Haley & Stumpf, 1989; Haley, 1997). Once set with a decision, doubt and opposition do not deter them, and they may resist a reanalysis. 

SF - Sensing-Feeling Types - these are people oriented decision makers. They welcome people's opinions, and concentrate on qualitative and more affective and evaluative information.  More concerned with facts about people that about things. Short term focus on problems of today, but only with human implications. Harmony is preferred and they are quick to reconcile interpersonal differences (Haley & Stumpf, 1989; Haley, 1997). 

NT - iNtuitive-Thinking Types (Visionaries) - focus on nonlinear problems and studying patterns in the data (Nutt, 1986). Head for the more general information rather then the details and specifics.  Prefer analysis, but will make bold intuitive leaps into the unknown. More long-range in their thinking and strategic plans. Not big on implementation.  Will dive into a complex problem and try to organize them into simpler ones. Can be quite idealistic and even impersonal, and will ignore the nay sayers around them (Haley & Stumpf, 1989; Haley, 1997). 

NF - iNtuitive-Feeling Types (Catalysts) - focus on judgment and experience, and portraying their own personal views as the facts (Nutt, 1986). There are few rules in their decision-making and they rely on intuitive perception.  They will construct open ended, non-linear, and ill-defined problems and seek fresh, human possibilities.  More focus on the broad themes than on specifics and seek longer-term goals. May test their hunches (Haley & Stumpf, 1989; Haley, 1997). 

More recently, the four main types (most relevant to leadership and teams) are thought to be NF, NT, SJ, and SP (i.e. instead of ST or SF it is SJ and SP).  We will cover this development in the section on Teams.

Experiments by Mason and Mitroff (1981) found that managers of opposite styles (i.e. no common letters) will create an organization that is the living hell of their opposite type. STs will create something way to structured and short term and linear than NFs, for example.

If you would like to further explore M-B, there are several good study guides to explore your M-B.

Try this study guide --Great 16 type click and go chart to get to first mask.

Or, this one -- Also a good 16 type set of descriptors to go to

Caplinger's lists of type characteristics

Good short listing of descriptors, % of population with traits, and on-liners.

You can check your Correspondence across five personality typologies

Proceed to Step 3 How to relate M-B to Leadership situations and styles.


Appendix A: Frequencies of Types

Keirsey Temperament Distribution Adapted to Types presented in this article.

Total Results Recorded = 6,264,179 on Keirsey Web Site (July, 2001).  Note: Kiersey uses different modality labels.

Table 16: Frequencies
MODALITY Percentage Total
SJ's Traditionalist 43.45 2721764
NF's Catalysts 30.15 1888839
NT's Visionary 13.73 860177
SP's Trouble Shooter 12.67 793399
DECIDER - (ESTJ) 11.01 689613
INSPECTOR (ISTJ) 10.58 663005
GUARDIAN (ESFJ) 12.19 763344
LONE RANGER (ISFJ) 9.67 605802
CHARISMATIC (ENFJ) 7.43 465631
CRUSADER (ENFP) 8.59 538082
CHANGE AGENT (INFP) 6.82 426950
MASTERMIND (INTJ) 5.24 328468
ARCHITECT (INTP) 3.09 193637
PROMOTER (ESTP) 2.71 169621
SCULPTOR (ISTP) 2.17 135792
REBEL (ESFP) 4.80 300817
EARLY ADOPTER (ISFP) 2.99 187169

[Source for statistics, http://keirsey.com/cgi-bin/stats.cgi ]



Proceed to Step 3 How to relate M-B to Leadership situations and styles.