Web Paper Title: "Myers Briggs, XYZ Leadership, and Team Roles" by David M. Boje, Ph.D.  January 21, 2001- David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box
Born on: January 21, 2001

STEP 3: X, Y, & Z LEADERSHIP DIMENSIONS AND YOUR M-B SCORES.

Please assign your M-B archetype to one of the 'Primary' eight leader types and associate it with the X, Y, and Z dimensions of Leadership. STs (and most Js) proceed directly to Step 4, where we dive right into all 16 at once.

First I will review some of the research relating leadership to M-B. Second, I will define  the X, Y, Z model of leadership I am developing. Third, I will propose correlates of the basic eight types in Figure 1 with the M-B scores.

Research Review - What is relation of Leadership to Myers-Briggs Archetypes?  

In the 1990 edition of the Handbook of Leadership (Bass, 1990: 445), there is a brief summary of the relationship of M-B to leadership: "There is a consistent linkage between one's thought processes and the tendency to be directive or participative."  Two studies are cited.  In one study by O'Roark (1986), the M-B types were correlated with the Bass-Valenzi preferred management style scales.  The M-B thinking archetype individuals preferred more directive styles of leadership while the feeling ones did not like being directive.  Sensing archetypes did not like negotiating styles of leading, while intuitives preferred consulting with followers, but rejected high participating styles of leadership. The second study in the (Bass, 1989: 445) Handbook of Leadership was by Schweiger and Jago (1982).  The sample was 62 intuitive  archetype, graduate business students, who chose fewer participative solutions to a problem set of the Vroom and Yetton (1974) instrument, while the sensing archetypes chose more participative solutions.  These study results are consistent with my thesis that a Z dimension (Mono to Poly), we shall examine below, where poly means to include more voices (inner and outer) and more participation (processes).  We will soon show how Z intersects with X and Y leadership dimensions displayed in Figure One (below).

Related to leadership, Ginn and Sexton (1990) also administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to a group of founder/CEOs from the Inc-500 and a group of founder/CEOs from slower-- growing firms. They found significant differences between the groups, but they stopped short of concluding that the personality factors drove venture performance.  We will examine decision bias in strategic leader decisions in Step 6 - XYZ Decision Bias. Next, we define the X, Y, and Z dimensions. Here are two views of M-B plotted on XYZ. 

What are the X, Y, and Z dimensions of leadership?

Figure 1A: X, Y, Z Leadership Dimensions (Click here for larger version).

 

Figure 1B: X, Y, Z Leadership Dimensions

In my XYZ theory of leadership, each of the eight leader modes (displayed in figure 1b and 16 in figure 1a) has two M-B archetypes, for a total of 16 (listed in Table 2 below).

What I would like you to do, after studying this web site, is based upon your M-B type (the 4 letter score you get from the test), figure out where you situate your leaderly personality on the X, Y, Z dimensions of leadership in Figure 1. There are definitions and examples presented below.  The 16 M-B types are hypothesized to correlate with the X, Y, and Z dimensions of leadership.  Please read the dimension definition and decide if you are high or low on each one.

X Dimension - Transactional to transformational leadership, as studied by Burns (1978) and Bass (1985). This is a classic dualism in leadership studies.  Burns looked at modal thinking (the means over ends reasoning) in the early stages of development and held these leaders to be "transactional." Transactional leadership "requires a shrewd eye for opportunity, a good hand at bargaining, persuading, reciprocating" (Burns, 1978:169). A "transformational leader," on the other hand, "recognizes and exploits an existing need or demand of a potential follower... (and) looks for potential motives in followers, seeks to satisfy higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower" (p. 4).

X - Are you more transactional or transformational in your leader personality, style and the organization situation you lead? _________________ write in the answer.

Y Dimension - From the Will to Server to the Nietzschean Will to Power. The Will to Power is specifically excluded from transaction and transformational leader theory by both Burns and Bass. I therefore treat it as a second dimension of leadership.  It is quite silly study leadership as just a well to serve; many leaders pursue power, some are able to do good things with it, others are swallowed by power. Nietzsche wrote about Will-to-Power (WTP) and Thus Spoke Zarathustra (TSZ) as having something to do with the will to initiate and implement a goal as well as the more macro construct of Darwin's theory of natural section, the power to transform the inherited advantages from generation to generation (WTP #362). And WTP is also a Will to Truth (TSZ, pp. 28, 113). The WTP is a will to overcome the small people, "they are the superman's greatest danger" (TSZ, p. 287). And the superleader is not satisfied with the happiness of the greatest number of workers or consumers (TSZ, p. 287). The Super leaders sees the abyss with the eyes of an eagle and grasps the abyss of poverty and misery with the talons of an eagle (TSZ, p. 288).

Y- Are you more about will-to-serve or will-to-power in your leader personality, style and the organization situation you lead? _________________ write in the answer.


Z Dimension  - From monophonic (single voice) narrative to (polyphonic) narrative. Some leaders cultivate one voice, their own, and others are more pluralistic, able to create polyphonic leadership.

First - there was one voice -In bureaucratic theater, there is mostly monologue. In bureaucratic leadership, for example, there is mostly monologue; other voices are there on the stage but forbidden to speak, or they can only be whispered, their words unhearable, drowned out by the one official narrator who is authorized to take center-stage and speak and speak some more.  As Kirkeby (2000: 232) argues it is the right of power to narrate events, to declare them romantic, tragic, comedic, or ironic, and then of course make them all into a romantic narratives that fits the bureaucratic pension for monophonic (single voiced) influence.   For any other voice to speak would be an act of bureaucratic espionage; certainly for the secretary to speak would be unthinkable rebellion.

Second - there were two voices - In the Quest two or more players take the stage, but it is rarely more than dialog. In dialogue the "I" and the "Other" take the stage and we hear voices, but little reflection. It is no longer the monologue of the I declaring the Other as villain. The Other gets to speak and be heard by the 'I."

Third - there were three voices - To me, this voice that Kirkeby describes is the same one discovered long ago by Adam Smith. Smith looked at global capitalism and say that without ethics events might well follow a logic of the market place that would not lead to ethical relations among buyer and seller, employer and employed, monopolist and entrepreneur. It is the internal spectator, the voice that speaks to us while observing the First and Second (the I and the Other) rehearse there dialogue on the stage in our mind's eye. And in this model, even two actors on the stage visualize the dialogue of the Triad in their own head, but as well in the head of the other.

Fourth - then there were four voices - This is a very special voice, one we sense is about to speak but does not, one that is on the stage but stays in the shadows. In the Fourth, "the event is never over and done with" (Kirkeby, 2000: 237). And with the about to speak voice of the Fourth, we are intuitively aware of the simulation and almost can here the polyphony of voices, a mob about to take storm the stage. We may hear a groan, a murmur, a mumbling sound, but we can never quite make out the words. We can sense somehow the bureaucratic machine, the quest journey, and even chaos itself are just mythic metaphors some people have speculated and articulated about the web of human events (web is yet another one, as it theater a metaphor). We sense the gap, and we know with one more step we will certainly fall into chaos. See Boje (2000c) for more on the multiple voices of leadership.

Z - Decide, how many voices you have, in your leadership personality, and in the situation of the organization you lead? _________________ write in the answer.

What are examples of the Mono-Voiced leaders along the X and Y dimension?  Examples of monophonic (one voice speaks for all) leaders are depicted in Figure Two (below). The Figure crosses two leadership study dimensions, the X (will to serve to will to power) with the Y (transactional to transformational) leadership. 

Figure Two: Leadership in Two Dimensions (first 4 types are 1-voice leaders)

Table Two gives you predicted correlates of X, Y, Z dimensions of leadership with M-B types.  Clicking on the Blue labels in Table 2 will take you to definitions and examples of each one.  Clicking on the M-B codes will let you review those definitions.  To use this table, look up your M-B type in the Right Columns and then see how they correspond to the X, Y, and Z dimensions of Leadership. 

Table 2: Leader Modes, Team Roles and M-B Archetypes

 X Y Z Dimensions of Leadership Model

Primary Modality and 2 M-B Archetype Correlates

X         TRANS Y    WILL  Z VOICE LEADER MODALITY Archetype A Archetype B
Transactional Hi Will to Serve Mono (1 -voice) BUREAUCRAT
 Decider/ Inspector

 

Chief Decider ESTJ Inspector ISTJ
Transformational Hi Will to Power Mono SUPERMAN/ SUPERWOMAN
Guardian/ Lone Ranger

 

Guardian  ESFJ  Lone Ranger ISFJ
Transactional Hi Will to Power Mono PRINCE
Valiant/ Engineer/ Model Builder

 

Valiant  ENTJ Engineer ENTP
Transactional Hi Will to Serve Poly (many voices included) POLITICIAN Mastermind/ Architect

 

Mastermind INTJ Architect  INTP
Transactional Hi Will to Power Poly OPINION
 Promoter/ Sculptor

 

Promoter ESTP   Sculptor ISTP
Transformational Hi Will to Serve Poly REFORMER
Rebel/ Early Adopter

 

Rebel   ESFP Early Adopter  ISFP
Tran formational Hi Will to Serve Mono HERO
Charisma/ Crusader

 

Charisma    ENFJ   Crusader ENFP
Transformational Hi Will to Power Poly REVOLUTIONARY
 World Caregiver/ Change Agent

 

World Caregiver INFJ Change Agent  INFP

David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box

In Table Two (above), The Two dimensions Thinking to Feeling and iNtuitive to Sensing are crossed and shown with Will to Power to Will to Serve (Y dimension) AND Transactional to Transformational (X dimension) Leader types (See Boje, 2000 on Prince, Super, Hero, Bureaucrat, and Prince model). Again these are only the four monophonic leader archetypes. There will be four more.

The polyphonic (including many voices) are in Table Three (lower part).

NOTE: In the Table below, each example exhibits all four quadrants. They are set where they are for illustration only. For example Washington was the war hero, the President who could have been Prince, the Superman (godlike to many) and the transactional Bureaucrat with the will to serve.

Table 3: Polyphonic Leaders (Single Voice) & M-B

 

TRANSACTIONAL ---- x --- TRANSFORMATIONAL 

WILL TO POWER

|

|

|

|

|

 

|

|

z

|

|

|

|

|

|

 

|

|

WILL TO SERVE

NT - Prince ENTJ

ASK WHY - Transactional ( Will to Power) The Chief and the Shaman archetypes

FDR ENTJ or Mr. Spock INTJ

SF - Superman/ Superwoman ESFJ

Transformational (Will to Power) The Warrior/ Hunter and the Fool (Art) archetypes

Washington ESFJ or Mr. McCoy ESFP

ST - Bureaucrat - ESTJ

ASK WHAT - Transactional (Will to Serve) The Chief and the Warrior/ Hunter archetypes

Truman ESTJ or ISTJ "Scottie"

"Some men can make decisions and some cannot. Some men fret and delay under criticism" TRUMAN. He used to have a saying that applies here, and I note that some people have picked it up" [which
refers to "If you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen."]. (Truman, Harry S., Mr. Citizen) 

NF - Hero ENFJ 

Transformational (Will to Serve) The Shaman and the Fool (Critic) archetypes

Lincoln ENFJ & Captain Kirk

Star Trek fans can easily spot the Myers-Briggs archetypes in Table Two. Captain Kirk relied upon his Star Trek team of players to reflect back to him their particular values and concerns through their unique cognitive styles. In Table Two, Dr. McCoy is the "Feeling" person, along with Captain Kirk who are arguing eternally with the thinking ones, Mr. Spock the first officer of the Starship Enterprise and Scottie the star-ship's Engineer. Spock lives in his mind, in a world of rational thought Kirk did some thinking, but was happier in the world of "doing" and using both intuition and feeling. Mr Spock has intuition, but the emotional side has always eluded his more rational, logical, and analytical-mind character. It is easy to picture Captain Kirk as that dashing, romantic and passionate, hero of adventure, not a role Spock ever enjoyed in the series. Kirk is gung-ho and inspiring while Spock is systematic and unemotional.  Now it is Data who is unemotional, the android who has no emotions at all, the new introverted NT.  

Mr. McCoy is someone whose life and death medical decisions lean toward Extrovert - Sensation - Feeling - Perceiving. McCoy is an interesting ironic character, since despite his medical science training, he has a big heart.  Mr. Spock chooses Introvert - iNtuition -Thinking -Judging and is therefore an exact reversal of McCoy, which makes for interesting conflicts in their characters. Spock is also ironic, since he relies more on iNtuitive than Sensing. Mr. McCoy, on the other hand retains the Sensing aspects of his medical training. Mr. McCoy is always accusing Spock of being cold-hearted. Kirk is always coming between Spock and McCoy both to mediate their disputes and to get at perspectives which are quite different from his own. Kirk shares the follow your heart orientation of McCoy but shares the Intuitive side with Spock.

Kirk is the ENFJ. He is happiest just doing and being the action hero. His opposite is ISTP. Scottie is the ISTJ (differing from Kirk only in the P-J choice). Sensing and Intuitive differences are apparent in the preferred ways of knowing of Captain Kirk and Engineer Scotty. Scotty's reality is his engines, keeping them clean, spotless, and in good order while Kirk pushes them beyond the limits of their real capabilities. Kirk pushes Scotty to try out possibilities that Jean-Paul Sartre would say are "not-yet-tried" or not-yet-being" in Scotty's reality. Captain Kirk will call over the intercom of, "Mr. Scott! Give me more warp drive -- NOW!" in an the Intuitive's expectation of overcoming all obstacles. Scotty's Sensing response is, "I canna [not] give you more'n she's got, Cap'n!" (Adapted from Falt). Then Scotty some how gets the extra speed out of his precious engines. 

LINKS

Table Four, gives you an alternative look at X, Y, Z and several examples of leaders who are well known.  The Table is split into an upper and lower half by the Z scores. The X and Y dimensions are embedded in each half. The mono-voiced leaders are in the top half and the poly-voiced (polyphonic) ones are in the bottom half of the table.

Table 4: 8 Leader Styles and their M-B Types with the Z Dimension

PART I - Z Dimension (with X & Y embedded)

The MONOPHONIC (Single Voice) Leaders

 

T  H  I  N  K  I  N  G

 

S

E

N

S

I

N

G

ESTJ & ISTJ

Bureaucrat

ESTJ = Harry Truman & Bette Davis; ISTJ = Scotty

TRANSACTIONAL & WILL TO SERVE

ENTJ & ENTP

Prince

ENTJ = Franklin D. Roosevelt & Margaret Thatcher; ENTP = Walt Disney, C3PO

TRANSACTIONAL & WILL TO POWER

i

N

T

U

I

T

I

V

E

ESFJ & ISFJ

Superman/ Superwoman

ESFJ  = George Washington &  Nancy Carigan; ISFJ = Mother Teresa

TRANSFORMATIONAL & WILL TO POWER

ENFJ & ENFP

Hero

ENFJ = Abe Lincoln, Captain Kirk, Princess Lea & Elizabeth Dole; ENFP = Eleanor Roosevelt, Luke Skywalker

TRANSFORMATIONAL & WILL TO SERVE

  F  E  E  L  I  N  G  
PART II - Z Dimension

The POLYPHONIC (multi voice, more democratic leaders)

  T  H  I  N  K  I  N  G  

S

E

N

S

I

N

G

 

ESTP & ISTP

Opinion

ESTP = Madonna; ISTP = Patton

TRANSACTIONAL & WILL TO POWER

INTJ & INTP 

Politician (Gov)

INTJ = JFK, Spock, R2D2 & Susan B. Anthony; INTP = Al Gore

TRANSACTIONAL & WILL TO SERVE

i

N

T

U

I

T

I

V

E

ESFP & ISFP

Reformer

ESFP = Elvis Presley & Kathy Lee Gifford; ISFP = Jackie Onasis; Mr. McCoy & Hans Solo

TRANSFORMATIONAL & WILL TO SERVE

INFJ & INFP

Revolutionary

INFJ = Mahatma Gandhi, Oprah Winfrey, Martin Luther King Jr.; INFP = Princess Diana

TRANSACTIONAL & WILL TO POWER

  F  E  E  L  I  N  G  
David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box

See Worksheet & Famous People by M-B and other sources used to compile list in the table.

 

In the next section Step 4, we look at all 16 M-B types by taking the 8 primary types of leaders in the X, Y, and Z dimensions and associating them with M-B.

 

Proceed to Step 4