Web Paper Title: "Myers Briggs, XYZ Leadership, and Team Roles" by David M. Boje, Ph.D.  January 21, 2001- David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box
Born on: January 21, 2001

 

Step 5 - XYZ Leadership and TEAM ROLESTEAM BUILDING

In steps 1 to 4I, we focused on interpreting the 16 personality types, and stayed with the traditional view that the basic types revolve around, NT, NF, ST, SF. However, more recent work suggests that building a leadership team is based more on balancing S with the P and J.  That is the four main types become NT, NF, SJ, and SP.  The hypothesis is that balancing these types rounds out your leadership in complex, uncertain, and tough times.

How do you balance the eight leader modes and the M-B archetypes (Type A or Type B for each leader mode) on the team you work in (with four temperaments or roles)? I assume that effective teams will have a combination of traditionalists, visionaries, trouble shooters, and catalysts (SJ, NT, SP, and NF). Further, I assume that all the leader modes are necessary to make such a diverse and dynamic team perform to its peak.  In Table Five, I theorize that each of the Eight Leader Modes has type main types (A and B) and two Backup types. The Opposite Types in the last column would be the ones to drive A and B the most crazy on a team, but when they can all learn to work together, can also yield the most results.  Balancing team roles and learning to work with diverse personalities takes time, training, leadership, and an understanding of the various archetypes present in each team (and the ones that are missing from a team that is less than what it could be if they could be recruited).  Not all situations require such diverse teams. Situation differences are explored in Tables 7 and 8.

Figure Four: PJ impact on Team Roles

Figure Four gives us the four team roles necessary for effective team work. The team roles for complex work come from looking at these dimensions. It is not the usual way of sorting people, since it splits the S's by their P and J scores. 

Figure Five: Team Roles that Count

This next section is adapted from Keirsey and Bates (1978), Benfara and Knox (1991) and Kroeger and Thuesen (1992). 

The the SP is concrete and utilitarian (trouble shooters), the SJ is concrete and cooperative (traditionalists), and the NT is abstract and utilitarian (visionaries), while the NF type is abstract and cooperative (catalysts).  The hypothesis is that more effective teams will balance all four personality types.

 

SP - Sensing-Perceiving - TROUBLE SHOOTERS focus on putting out fires and solving immediate problems. They are realistic, but to them everything is negotiable. They can be oriented towards transactional needs to mold and shape political transactions and opinions (use focus groups for input) or to the transformational ways of seeking to reform the rules of the game. They are the Opinion and Reformer leaders.  They can be quite open, flexible, and focus on the needs of the present situation.  Trouble shooters like the game of change and can use very adaptive tactics.  They dislike being told what to do and are impatient with Heroes and Princes. They are tolerant of Bureaucrats, but will move around them to get things done. Bureaucracy makes them impatient since they do not enjoy maintaining the status who.  If their are no fires to put out, troubleshooters may start some and then put them out. Troubleshooter opinion and reform leaders listen more to followers than to their superiors.  They are more flexible and open-minded to those they lead than to those they follow. Superiors may find troubleshooters hard to predict, since they are so flexible in how they accomplish things.

SJ - TRADITIONALISTS focus on bureaucratic or corporate hierarchy and are the Weberian masters at defining rules, policies, standards, and procedures.  They set up monitoring, inspecting, and guardian systems of surveillance. They can be oriented towards either the Will to Serve of the ideal bureaucracy or the Will to Power of the Superman/ Superwoman (one archetype becomes the shadow of the other). They make patient, thorough, steady, and reliable managers and supervisors. They value caution and tradition and expect accurate work.  Traditionalists preserve the traditions and rituals in life and have a keen sense of moral and social responsibility. Bureaucrats are loyal to their stakeholders, but Supermen/Superwomen protect their own power and freedom first. Both modes of traditionalists are monophonic, speaking for their organization with a single voice.  They are decisive and happiest when they are working out their plans with people who just go along and do their job.  Traditionalists run efficient meetings, expect colleagues to hear their leaderly voice, remember it, and stick to their plan.  They will become impatient when plans and projects get delayed.  They surround themselves with people who can carry out reliable functions and be predictable. Most uncomfortable around revolutionaries who disrupt their plans or politicians who mess with their traditions. 

NT - VISIONARIES focus on designing systems and tweaking the organization's mission. They are the PRINCE and the POLITICIAN, the valiant Prince, such as FDR or the Engineer such as Walt Disney and Ted Turner. As politicians, visionaries can dream big. They will grow and develop the organization and place a strong emphasis on surrounding themselves with competent and intelligent people. Princes and Politicians are somewhat sly and expect a lot of themselves and of others. Visionaries seek change and focus on strategic possibilities and tactics, even when they run over the top of others.  They can easily see long-range plans and anticipate limits for their organizations. They can become empire builders or leaders of political parties. They seek the cutting edge in their empires and tend to be nonconformists when it comes to bureaucracy, though they often wind up on top of one.  Princes and Politicians paint a canvas of ideas and encourage others to share knowledge that will gain them tactical power. Visionaries will solve problems and enhance the creative process, but once things are set in motion, they prefer to withdraw and let someone else take run the system.  Walt Disney kept strict and absolute control over the managers of the Magic Kingdom (Boje, 1995). Princes and Politicians many ignore the feelings of others to get their way. 

NF - CATALYSTS focus on people within the organization and on their individual development. Their style of leadership is more participative (e.g. the Hero or Revolutionary modes). Though the Revolutionary responds to more voices. Heroes are often referred to as charismatic (Max Weber). Revolutionaries such as Gandhi and King Jr. were verbally fluent, gave great feedback, were good listeners, and had a talent for managing people. Both the hero and revolutionary are transformational leaders. They seek harmony and cooperation, but are willing, in the case of King Jr. and Gandhi to use non-violent power to take on the status quo. They see possibilities in people and can turn their liabilities into assets by rallying them to their cause. Catalysts can get too relational, and get over-extended and burn out. People worried that Gandhi's health was deteriorating from his extended fasts. The downfall of the Hero and Revolutionary is they may seek approval and become people pleasers.  Catalysts seek positive feedback and despise the impersonal treatment of others. They are therefore incompatible with BUREAUCRATS, and steer clear of OPINION leaders who change with the winds.

Star Trek fans can see the impact of four different personalities tackling complex problems in the following example. 

Table 7: How Do You Deal With Others in a Star Trek Team?

 SJ Mr. Scotty (ISTJ)

TRADITIONALIST - The Chief Engineer gets upset when things are out of order and not being run by the book. He is stressed when he has to fix the engines that Kirk asks him to push beyond their limit. Scotty is the skeptic, questioning if something can be done and wanting to follow tradition.  He likes to know where he is in the organization chart. He thinks with hierarchies and categories. He is sensing and judging and then relating things and can treat people as things and thing-tenders.

NT Mr. Spock (INTJ)

VISIONARY - Always the logical and analytical First Officer. Spock wants to make up logical structures that connect ideas, not people or values.  He creates the theory or blueproint and visionary model of abstract concepts to solve problems based upon time series and historical analysis and simulation.  He is not bothered by traditional categories and likes to see the connections that will result in his reasoned intuitive leaps about the big picture. Spock peers at the vision of the universe on his screens.

SP Mr. McCoy (ESFP)

TROUBLE SHOOTER - When there are problems, McCoy will question and undermine authority by bringing up the human value and moral issues. McCoy challenges the existing categories that Spock, Kirk and McCoy create.  He is the critic and trouble shooter (a bit of a rebel).  He challenges the military-types with his eat, drink and be merry role. He dislikes being the cog in the wheel (be it a logical, military, or administrative one ).  He can be radical in his approach to problem solving in groups.

NF Captain Kirk (ENFJ)

CATALYST - The Enterprise Captain will bend the rules  and defy what analysis or engineering says is not possible. Kirk will dispute what is logical and search for what is human and even what is spiritual (along with McCoy).  Kirk makes connections on a psychological, emotional and spiritual level. He seeks the universal oneness in his voyages, but he will act out of intuition and take action just to see what happens or upset an opponent's predictions about his strategy. 

David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box  

Star Trek presents a different approach to team work. In Star Trek people stay in their roles and only learn to appreciate the other.  Problems are solved with team work, but their is more struggle in the inner dimensions of each character in Star Wars.  In Star Trek, Captain Kirk always ends up the hero.  But in Star Wars, the characters are more diversified, and each character must complement the other and deal with the struggle with their own inner enemies to be successful.  In different parts of the Star Wars adventure, more than in Star Trek, different people emerge as heroic characters.  

Table 8: How Do You Deal With Others in a Star Wars Team?

SJ OB1 and Darth Vader (ISTJ) 

TRADITIONALIST - Both Obi-Wan Kenobi (OB1) and Darth Vader are disciplined in the traditions of the force and conflict in their struggle of good and evil. OB1 is teaching Luke Skywalker the discipline to avoid following in the footsteps of Luke's father, Darth Vader. In Episode One, we see how closely OB1 follows the traditional way of the Jedi. As an adult Vader follows the traditions of his Emperor. Vader wants everything to be in order or you will pay the price. He treats people more as things more than does OB1. Yet, in the end Vader takes off his machine mask and has feelings for Luke.

NT R2D2 (INTJ) and C3PO (ENTP)

VISIONARY - Each is logical and analytical, an NT with logic structures, who can see bluprints and make linguistic and historial analysis.  C3PO is more bothered about being proper about tradition than is R2D2. R2D2 will break out of its programming and plug into an enemy computer to free the others. c3PO is aware of values and protocal, but only simulates feelings.  C3PO is always talking in abstractions, while R2D2 will just take action once it is able to make an intuitive leap.  Both have vision to see the universe on their screens.

SP Hans Solo (ESFP)

TROUBLE SHOOTER - When there are problems, Hans Solo will question and undermine authority because he is the rebel who values his independence. He is also a gambler and will take risks that other characters find imprudent.  Solo has an inner struggle with values and moral issues. He operates from his gut more than by logical vision or thought out plans or disciplined training. He challenges the existing categories of the Jedi, Empire, and Federation. Solo is the critic and trouble shooter (a definite rebel).  He challenges the military-types with his eat, drink and be merry attitude. No cog in the wheel (be it a logical, Jedi, or political).  He can be radical in his approach to problem solving in groups.

NF Princess Leia (ENFJ) and Luke Skywalker (ENFP)

CATALYST - Princess Leia is more of a decider than Luke who tends to diverge.  Both will bend the rules, but Lea will follow traditions is more the politician.  Luke will defy what analysis or engineering says is not possible (an influence from his mentor Hans and OB1). Luke will dispute what is logical and search for what is human and even what is spiritual (an influence from OB1).  Both make connections on a psychological, emotional and spiritual level. Both seek universal oneness in their quests, but Luke will act out of intuition and take action just to see what happens or upset an opponent's predictions about his strategy, while Lea will take the traditional and political roads. Luke struggles with his dark side.

David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box  Press for Star Wars Theme Song

The parallel between Star Trek and Star Wars are in the SJ, NT, Sp & NF roles. But in Star Wars the characters struggle with their own transformations, more so than in Star Trek.  Star Wars steps only a bit out of the box that is Star Trek, but the differences are important ones for team building.  That is, in Star Wars, the inner struggle and the character transformations all for more complex team performance than in the more top-down military hierarchy of Star Trek.  Between Mr. McCoy and Hans Solo, I see a superman (woman) quality that is the Will to Serve, a gentler and kinder path than the discipline of OB1 or Darth Vader. 

In looking at SJ in Table Five, the difference between Bureaucrat (traditionalist) and Superman/ Superwoman (traditionalist) is in thinking versus feeling. OB1 and Vader are bureaucrats, unable to enact the feelings, in their Will to Serve the (Light or Dark) force. Each struggles with the Will to Power, a will to break free of their service to the force.  In this sense across the episodes, it is Darth Vader that conquers his inner enemies and becomes Superman. Just as he dies he removes his robotic and mechanistic mask, and becomes human. Serving either force ends up bureaucratic, while moving moving beyond such control is a step toward Superman.  

Hans Solo ends up being the reformer, despite his struggle to remain only the independent rebel. He struggles with his urge to be the gambler and promoter.

Princess Lea is the ENFJ charismatic to resists her scripted political role INTJ (mastermind) or ENTJ (prince). Luke, is a different hero a catalyst and crusader. Both take the classis hero's journey, the quest to discover their true self. Luke also must face the nightmarish fear that he will end up like his father, a mechanist bureaucrat, loyal to the dark traditions. If you search the other characters, you can fill in most of the roles in Table Five. 

Table 9: Team Roles, Leader Fit, and M-B Archetypes

TEAM ROLE and LEADER FIT PREDICTIONS
TEAM ROLE LEADER MODES Type A Type B COMPATIBLE OPPOSITE 
TRADITIONALIST

SJ

BUREAUCRAT
 Decider/ Inspector
Chief Decider ESTJ Inspector ISTJ   ISTP
ESTP
REVOLUTIONARY INFJ, INFP
SUPERMAN/ SUPERWOMAN
Guardian/ Lone Ranger
Guardian  ESFJ  Lone Ranger ISFJ ISFP, ESFP POLITICIAN INTJ, INTP
VISIONARY

NT

PRINCE
Valiant/ Engineer/ Model Builder
Valiant  ENTJ Engineer ENTP INTJ, INTP REFORMER ESFP, ISFP
POLITICIAN
  Mastermind/ Architect
Mastermind INTJ Architect  INTP ENTJ, ENTP SUPER MAN/ WOMAN ESFJ, ISFJ
TROUBLE SHOOTER

SP

OPINION
 Promoter/ Sculptor
Promoter ESTP   Sculptor ISTP
  ISTJ, ESTJ HERO ENFJ, ENFP
REFORMER
Rebel/ Early Adopter
Rebel   ESFP Early Adopter  ISFP ESFJ, ISFJ PRINCE ENTJ, ENTP
CATALYST

NF

HERO
Charisma/ Crusader
Charisma    ENFJ   Crusader ENFP INFJ, INFP OPINION ESTP, ISTP
REVOLUTIONARY
 World Caregiver/ Change Agent
World Caregiver INFJ Change Agent  INFP ENFP, ENTJ BUREAUCRAT ESTJ, ISTJ

David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box Also please note archetype links to Joe Butt's web site

Table Five assumes that teams exhibit multiple archetypes (masks) and that a team working on complex problems will need all the archetypes. But integrating such diverse personalities into a team is hard to achieve. There are archetypes that are just incompatible with others, and special training and leadership is needed to make such diverse teams workable. 

Exercises - As an exercise pair off with COMPATIBLE ARCHETYPES (See Table). Then switch groups and pair off with your most OPPOSITE ARCHETYPES. The theory is that you wear a persona or MASK presented to others. Yet, you are also attracted strangely to the OPPOSITE MASKS. In the far right column is the person who drives the team member in all their masks, the most crazy.  Yet, this may be the person that rounds out your team. You will often find the them at odds, but when they can work together, there is a good deal of innovation and creative choice. Teams with more diverse roles are thought to be more creative, work slower, but come up with better ideas in the long run.  How diverse is your team? Next we look at an alternate way to display the team archetypes.

Table 10: Four Team Roles and their 16 Archetypes

NF Catalysts

  • ENFJ Charisma (HERO)

  • ENFP Crusader (HERO)

  • INFJ World Caregiver (REVOLUTIONARY)

  • INFP Change Agent (REVOLUTIONARY)

NT Visionaries 

  • ENTJ Valiant (PRINCE)

  • ENTP Engineer (PRINCE)

  • INTJ Mastermind (POLITICIAN)

  • INTP Architect (POLITICIAN)

SJ Traditionalists 

  • ESTJ Chief Decider (BUREAUCRAT)

  • ISTJ Inspector (BUREAUCRAT)

  • ESFJ Guardian (SUPERMAN/ WOMAN)

  • ISFJ Lone Ranger (SUPERMAN/ WOMAN)

SP Trouble Shooters 

  • ESFP Rebel (REFORMER)

  • ISFP Early Adopter (REFORMER)

  • ESTP Chief Promoter (OPINION LEADER)

  • ISTP Sculptor (OPINION LEADER)

(Adapted with Kiersey types and my own leader labels)

 

Table 11: Leader Modes, Team Roles and M-B Archetypes

 Dimensions

LEADER and TEAM ROLE

X         TRANS Y    WILL  Z VOICE LEADER MODALITY TEAM ROLE Archetype A Archetype B
Trans- actional Will to Serve Mono BUREAUCRAT
 Decider/ Inspector

 

TRADITIONALIST

SJ

Chief Decider ESTJ Inspector ISTJ
Trans- formational Will to Power Mono SUPERMAN/ SUPERWOMAN
Guardian/ Lone Ranger

 

Guardian  ESFJ  Lone Ranger ISFJ
Trans- actional Will to Power Mono PRINCE
Valiant/ Engineer/ Model Builder

 

VISIONARY

NT

Valiant  ENTJ Engineer ENTP
Trans- actional Will to Serve Poly POLITICIAN Mastermind/ Architect

 

Mastermind INTJ Architect  INTP
Trans- actional Will to Power Poly OPINION
 Promoter/ Sculptor

 

TROUBLE SHOOTER

SP

Promoter ESTP   Sculptor ISTP
Trans- formational Will to Serve Poly REFORMER
Rebel/ Early Adopter

 

Rebel   ESFP Early Adopter  ISFP
Trans- formational Will to Serve Mono HERO
Charisma/ Crusader

 

CATALYST

NF

Charisma    ENFJ   Crusader ENFP
Trans- formational Will to Power Poly REVOLUTIONARY
 World Caregiver/ Change Agent

 

World Caregiver INFJ Change Agent  INFP

David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box

 

Table 12: Situational Fit to Organization Forms

 Dimensions SITUATION

LEADER MODALITIES

TEAM

ROLE

X   TRANS   WILL  Z VOICE ORG FORM LEADER MODALITY Archetype A Archetype B
Trans- actional Will to Serve Mono BUREAUCRACY (Weber) BUREAUCRAT
 Decider/ Inspector

 

Chief Decider ESTJ Inspector ISTJ TRADITIONALIST

SJ

 

Trans- formational Will to Power Mono NIETZSCHEAN SUPERMAN/ SUPERWOMAN
Guardian/ Lone Ranger

 

Guardian  ESFJ  Lone Ranger ISFJ
Trans- actional Will to Power Mono FEUDAL (Weber) PRINCE
Valiant/ Engineer/ Model Builder

 

Valiant  ENTJ Engineer ENTP VISIONARY

NT

 

Trans- actional Will to Serve Poly GOVERNMENT (Burns) POLITICIAN Mastermind/ Architect

 

Mastermind INTJ Architect  INTP
Trans- actional Will to Power Poly NETWORK/ POSTMODERN OPINION
 Promoter/ Sculptor

 

Promoter ESTP   Sculptor ISTP
TROUBLE SHOOTER

SP

Trans- formational Will to Serve Poly MOVEMENT (Burns) REFORMER
Rebel/ Early Adopter

 

Rebel   ESFP Early Adopter  ISFP
Trans- formational Will to Serve Mono QUEST/ RELIGIOUS (Weber) HERO
Charisma/ Crusader

 

Charisma    ENFJ   Crusader ENFP CATALYST

NF

Trans- formational Will to Power Poly CHAOS & COMPLEXITY REVOLUTIONARY
 World Caregiver/ Change Agent

 

World Caregiver INFJ Change Agent  INFP

David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box

Table 8 includes links to organization forms and situations in which various leader archetypes and team roles will be most effective.  You can also click on the X, Y, and Z dimensions to get definitions on each one. Finally there are links to the various M-B archetype that are predicted to define each leader modality and team role. 

Proceed to Step 6 Decision Bias Effects