Web Paper Title: "Myers Briggs, XYZ Leadership, and Team Roles" by David M. Boje, Ph.D. January 21, 2001- „ David Boje, Inside the Leadership Box
January 21, 2001
Step 9: Enneagram and the Myers-Briggs (This section also has the conclusions and references).
In Step 9 we look at the relationship between Enneagram and M-B. There is said to be about a 73% correlations between these well known personality theories. In this guide, I will invite you to take a couple of Enneagram tests. You may also want to do some reading to decide what is your enneagram. The second portion of this guide looks at the types of influence in decisions that are associated with enneagram.
The value of doing this steps is that you will get a primary archetype, as well as its relationship to the type you may well exhibit when you feel secure (or tired), and another when you feel under stress. For me, this allows us to take care of a major problem with the M-B test as well as Leadership theory. That is, instead of one personality profile, I think that most people on the planet have several personalities which they exhibit in different situations. Push someone or let them relax, and you will see that their style varies. I suspect this is true for you as well. To begin you will need to take the M-B, and then get a couple readings of your Enneagram. This can all be done on line.
Second - Do an ENNEAGRAM COMPARISON - Take an Enneagram Test on line (www.9types.com), and try another [Second version of test Duniho; this one collects stats on relation of M-B and Enneagram] - both require M-B first and each may give you different Enneagram results - so you will have to study:
Third - Verify your result - use the Clickable Java Script relation of Enneagram and M-B - Allows you to decide which M-B and Enneagram match best for you. Great site.
Verify the Results of your tests - If you do not think your on line score reflects who you are, based on the definitions, scenarios, and stories I provide, then by all means figure out your own M-B letters. You can verify M-B by relating it to the Enneagram (there is about a 73% correlation and overlap between the two personality profiles). Once you have confidence in both your M-B and Enneagram score please read on.
The next figure gives some predictions as the the relationship between Enneagram and M-B.
Figure 7 - Myers-Briggs correlates with Enneagram Types
How to interpret an Enneagram. Each enneagram type (Figure i) is referenced by a number and a a title for the type (followed by four correlated M-B types, in order). E.g. 8. Protector (ENTJ, ESTJ, ENTP, ESTP).
Note: Only the first four M-B scores are shown in Figure i (See Appendix B for more complete list). In the discussion section, we will continue the discussion of enneagram and M-B. Our immediate concern is to validate your test results.
Next I will work through an example of Enneagram, relying on Daniels and Price (2000).
Primary Type. Each number represents a main type, which is connected to several other types to constitute your personality system. E.G. The primary type, 8, the Protector, has lost sight of the fundamental principle, that everyone begins in innocence and without guile and everyone can sense truth. They come to believe instead that it is a hard and unjust world in which the powerful take advantage of others' innocence. They learn a coping strategy: become strong and powerful in imposing truth and hiding vulnerability in order to protect self and others and gain respect. Because of this strategy of being, they have power and control, seek justice and root out injustice. Protectors put their energy into control and dominance of their space of people and things in that space, protecting the weak and innocent, and gaining respect by being strong and just. They de everything possible to not be weak, vulnerable, uncertain, or dependent. Their strength is courage, persistence, fairness, decisiveness, and self-assertion.
Wings - The personality types adjacent to 8 are called the "wing types (e.g. 7 and 9). According to Enneagram theory, your personality type is influenced by one or both of the personality types that are your wings. But the main focus of the enneagram is on the arrows, called security and stress for each primary type.
Security and Stress - There are two blue arrows connected to each primary type. The incoming arrow is known as the "Security." The outgoing arrow from the main type is your "Stress" type. For our example, 8, the Security type is 2 (Giver), and the Stress type is 5 (Thinker). Your stress type is the personality type you shift into when you feel stressed and pressured. Your security type is what you shift into when you feel relaxed and secure (and when overwhelmed or exhausted). For example, the Protector is "giving" when feeling secure, but will become a "thinker" when put under stress or when pressured. Under stress, the protector has to contain their confrontational style and has difficulty containing it (e.g. around injustice). They get angry around deceit and manipulation, and people who won't stand up for themselves. They can express a powerful anger, and be quite confrontational. When they feel secure, the Protector is quite giving, apple to give support to others.
In sum, the Enneagram presents a more complex system of personality than M-B, and recovers some of the dynamics of multiple persona, revealing how people switch persona when feeling secure or under stress. In conjunction with the M-B, you can begin to see what M-B you have as primary, and what you may shift into when you are secure or under stress. We are each multiple in our personalities.
Researching the dynamics of your persona takes time and patience. I suggest taking multiple tests, and comparing results to descriptions of the dimensions. If the there is a discrepancy between the test scores on either M-B or Enneagram, and your answers to these questions, I suggest you pick the result that is best for you based upon the definitions and stories presented below (I also recommend Clickable Java Script relation of Enneagram and M-B to explore this as well as Enneagram Journal for excellent way to validate your test results).
Table 15: Enneagram Correlates with M-B
|Nine ENNEAGRAM Types||Correlates of M-B to Enneagram in order||Leadership Characteristics|
|1. Perfectionist/ Reformer||ISTJ, ENFJ, ENTJ, ISFJ, INFJ, INTJ, ESTJ, ESTP, ENTP||Rational, idealistic type.
Conscientious, with a strong sense of right and
wrong. Advocates and teachers, they are agents for
change: always striving to improve things, but
afraid of making a mistake. Moral and ethical,
critical and perfectionist. Well-organized,
orderly, and fastidious.
Aristotle, Ralph Nader, Hillary Clinton, Confucius, Queen Elizabeth II, Wilhelm Leibnitz, Jerry Seinfeld, Martha Stewart, Barbra Streisand
|2. Giver/ Helper||ESFJ, ENFJ, ESFP, ENFP, ISFP, ISTP, ISFJ||Caring, nurturing type. Empathetic,
sincere, and warm-hearted. People-oriented,
friendly, generous, and self-sacrificing, but can
also be sentimental, flattering, and intrusive.
Possessive of others, doing things in order to be
needed, they have hidden agendas and ulterior
motives. Proud and self-deceptive, they can feel
unappreciated and victimized, becoming
manipulative and controlling.
Examples: Princess Diana, Mother Teresa, Bill Cosby
|3. Performer/ Motivator/ Achiever||ESTP, ENTP, ENTJ, ESTJ, ESFJ, ENFJ, ISFJ, ENTJ||Adaptable, success-oriented type.
Self-assured, attractive, and charming. Ambitious
and energetic, but can also be too competitive and
driven. Image-conscious and overly concerned about
what others think of them. Pragmatic chameleons,
calculating, saying and doing whatever
"works" for the. Seeking attention and
admiration, they can be arrogant and
Examples: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Brooke Shields, Jay Leno, Britney Spears, Katie Couric, Suzanne Sommers
|4. Romantic/ Artist||INFJ, INFP, ENFJ, ISFP, ENFP, ESFP||Intuitive, reserved type. Self-aware,
sensitive, introspective, and gentle.
Individualistic, expressive, and personal, but can
also be too moody and self-conscious. They dwell
in their fantasies, feeling different, melancholy,
and exempt from ordinary ways of living. Become
impractical, self-indulgent, and self-pitying;
problems with self-inhibition.
Examples: Calista Flockhart, Wynona Ryder,
|5. Observer/ Thinker||INTP, ISTP, INTJ, ISTJ, INFJ||Perceptive, cerebral type. Alert,
insightful, and curious. Able to concentrate and
understand complex ideas. Independent, innovative,
and inventive, but can also be too preoccupied
with their thoughts and imaginary constructs. They
become detached, yet high-strung and intense.
Awkward and isolated, they lack interpersonal
skills, and can be cynical and eccentric.
Examples: William Rhenquist, Stephen Hawking, Francis Crick, Helen Keller, Wittgenstein, Arthur C. Clarke
|6. Loyalist/ Skeptic||ISFJ, ESFJ, INFP, ENFP, ISTJ, INTP||Committed, security-oriented type.
Endearing and likable, forming strong bonds with
others. Reliable, responsible, and trustworthy,
but can also be too partisan and suspicious of
others, creating 'in' and 'out' groups. Defensive,
contradictory, evasive, and anxious: they run on
stress while complaining about it. Cautious and
indecisive, but also defiant and rebellious,
talking 'tough' and scapegoating others.
Examples: Al Gore, Mel Gibson, Harry Truman, Woody Allen
|7. Epicure/ Generalist/ Enthusiast||ESTP, ESFP, ENTP, ENFP, ISTP, ENFJ||Enthusiastic, productive type.
Extroverted, optimistic, and spontaneous. Playful,
high-spirited, practical, and accomplished, but
can also be overextended, superficial, and
undisciplined. Acquisitive, seeking constant
stimulation, they distract themselves by staying
on the go. Uninhibited, excessive, and
self-centered. Can be infantile, demanding, and
insensitive to others.
Examples: Richard Feynmann, Conan O'Brien (Late show host), Warren Buffet
|8. Protector/ Boss/ Leader||ENTJ, ESTJ, ENTP, ESTP, ESFP, ENFP, ISTJ||Powerful, aggressive type.
Self-confident, strong, and assertive. Protective,
resourceful, straight-talking and decisive, but
can also be proud and domineering. Feel they must
control their environment, becoming
confrontational and intimidating: everything is a
contest of wills and they seldom back down. Can
become hard-hearted and openly belligerent.
Examples: Joseph Stalin, Henry Kissinger, Mick Jagger, King Henry VIII, Muhammad Ali, Julius Caesar, Vladimir Putin, Zhu Rongji, Karl Marx
|9. Mediator/ Peace maker||ISFP, INFP, ISFJ, ESTP, ISTP||Easygoing, accommodating type.
Accepting, trusting, and stable. Good-natured,
optimistic, straightforward, and supportive, but
can also be too willing to go along with others to
keep the peace. Want things to be smooth and easy:
tend to be complacent, to simplify problems and to
minimize anything upsetting. Creatures of habit,
they can be passive and unwilling to change.
Stubborn, inattentive, and neglectful.
Examples: Bill Clinton
Column One is adapted from Daniels and Price (2000) with most common other names for each included; Column two is adapted from Ensemble web site http://tap3x.net/ENSEMBLE/typeframe.html and from EMBTI http://tap3x.net/EMBTI/mainpage.html#1 and http://tap3x.net/EMBTI/charts.html; Third column examples are from Tom's Enneagram page http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~tchou/ennea_intro.html#3
Enneagram and M-B - Discussion of Motivation and Influence Predictions
The Enneagram with 9 personality types is related to the main correlates of 16 M-B types in Table 11 (see Appendix B for derivation, and definitions of leader types). Thomas Chou (2000) argues that the enneagram has three basic long-term motivational influences, which I am calling will-to-power, will-to-ideals, and will-to-social-approval (for consistency with labels used above). The long term motivational predictors are represented by the X's in Table II. There are also three short-term influence predictions, that are designated by the Y's in Table 11. In the short-term (Y's) embrace others with (assertive) positive feelings, (aggressive) confront others with negative feelings, or just withdraw (passive). However, in the long term (X's) bring their respective will to do either power (self-reliant or authoritarian), ideal (inner aspirations for truth and beauty), or social (belonging and harmony) into being. The combined predictions are listed in column one.
Table 16 - Relation of Enneagram & M-B to Will to Power
|Nine ENNEAGRAM Types||Correlates of M-B to Enneagram in order||WTP- WILL TO POWER||WTI- WILL TO IDEALS||WTS- WILL TO SOCIAL APPROVAL||Positive Influence (Affection & Appreciation types)||Negative Influence (confronting types)||Detached Influence (With- drawal types)|
|1. Perfectionist/ Reformer
WTA with Negative influence
|ISTJ, ENFJ, ENTJ, ISFJ, INFJ, INTJ, ESTJ, ESTP, ENTP||X||Y|
|2. Giver/ Helper
WTP with positive influence
|ESFJ, ENFJ, ESFP, ENFP, ISFP, ISTP, ISFJ||X||Y|
|3. Performer/ Motivator/ Achiever
WTA with negative influence
|ESTP, ENTP, ENTJ, ESTJ, ESFJ, ENFJ, ISFJ, ENTJ||
|4. Romantic/ Artist
WTA with detached influence
|INFJ, INFP, ENFJ, ISFP, ENFP, ESFP||X||Y|
|5. Observer/ Thinker
WTP with detached influence
|INTP, ISTP, INTJ, ISTJ, INFJ||X||Y|
|6. Loyalist/ Skeptic
WTS with positive influence
|ISFJ, ESFJ, INFP, ENFP, ISTJ, INTP||X||Y|
|7. Epicure/ Generalist/ Enthusiast
WTA with positive influence
|ESTP, ESFP, ENTP, ENFP, ISTP, ENFJ||X||Y|
|8. Protector/ Boss/ Leader
WTP with negative influence
|ENTJ, ESTJ, ENTP, ESTP, ESFP, ENFP, ISTJ||X||Y|
|9. Mediator/ Peace maker
WTS with detached influence
|ISFP, INFP, ISFJ, ESTP, ISTP||X||Y|
(**** four star rating) - If you would like to learn more about the relationshp between Enneagram, story type, Northrop Fry's plot type, and some I-Ching, you will want to check out this web site: Ouroboros: Story Composition and Analysis Using Feng Shui and the Enneagram © Roger Clough - 7/18/01
More study guides:
Skeptic's Dictionary has great summary of Jung and the M-B
Life-Explore: Compare M-B and Enneagram with good M-B functional analysis
Enneagram Journal makes comparisons to M-B (new site location).
Enneagram Monthly - Good overview (sample free articles; others by subscription).
Dave's Enneagram - good study guide page.
A Directional Theory of the Enneagram by Thomas Chou. Excellent relation of Enneagram to influence theory.
Enneagram-Net: Profile of 9 enneagram types
Mary Bast: Relates 9 Enneagram types to leader types.
There are masks and shadow masks that thrill the archetypal psychologists and Jungian theorists. The M-B test usually is used to look only at one mask, as if the person did not have more in their repertoire. This serves to put most of our masks in the shadow region. Here I have tried to personify the various masks. Ultimately, we mature by being able to wear and understand many masks. Yet, some are undiscovered by each of us. That is the shadow side of our leadership. We all can take the Hero's journey, be the Superman, the Prince, and must be the Bureaucrat. And our our teams, we err if we do not seek to understand the personal styles and masks of our mates.
Yet, I would like to transcribe Jung's work into the existential and postmodern world. We live in a postmodern time of many leader voices. If we have only one voice, that will do us no good at all. See the following for more on this topic:
Boje (2000a) Four Voices of Leadership
Boje (2000b) Existential Leadership
Boje (2000c) Leadership out of the box
In the words of William Shakespeare (1599) in "As You Like it," Act 2, Scene 7, 1-39).
All the World's a stage
And all the men and women merely players
They have their exits and their entrances
and one man in his time plays many parts
- It is based on set of dualities, that ends up moving away from Jung's more dynamic system. Every person is categorized willy-nilly according to four binary distinctions: Extroverted/Introverted, iNtuitive/Sensing, Feeling/Thinking, and the Judgmental/Perceptive, each of the sixteen groups being labeled according to the four relevant letters.
- Different theorists who study leaders have assigned leaders such as George Washington and Abe Lincoln to different M-B categories. For example, whole most commentators score George Bush as ISTJ, Otto Kroeger, author of Types Talk: The 16 Personality Types That Determine How We Live, Love and Work says Bush is INFP. To assess George Bush's MBTI style he used "key words White House watchers used to describe him."
- The test is not valid or legal to use for personnel assignments, hiring, or promotion. It does not have predictive validity for such uses. It is a useful guide, and no more. Problem is, people go to a workshop, get excited and treat M-B as a secret window into the mind of their co-workers.
- The test results change over time. I for example was introverted early in life and now am quite the extrovert. I was early, on an ST and became an NT with more and more education. I also was quite the Judging decisive person in my small business, but with my second marriage, I am moving toward Perceiving. The point is that the test does not mean you can not change.
- A problem with the test is that Jung meant that each person could become balanced with maturity and be able to work in all the dualized dimensions.
- In short, do not treat the archetype scores of M-B as anything more than Astrology. At the same time the themes in Table One do keep coming up from ancient times (Native American Medicine Wheel and Greek personalities Choleric, Sanguine etc. -- to the present fashion of Myers-Briggs).
What is your M-B type? - explains each of 16 types and dimensions
Another Kiersey-type M-B on line survey
|Story of Isabel Briggs Myers|
|The C. G. Jung page|
|MB according to Craig http://220.127.116.11/myersbriggs/personhome.htm|
|Managing Employees; Managing Personalities By Jill Geisler|
|DO PHILOSOPHICAL TENDENCIES CORRELATE WITH PERSONALITY TYPES? by Robert N. Barger, Warren N. Kubitschek, Josephine C. Barger http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/aera.html|
MB types and various team roles (for another variation).
Barger (1999). THE ROSS-BARGER PHILOSOPHY INVENTORY http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/ross-barger
Barger, Kubitschek, & Barger (1998). DO PHILOSOPHICAL TENDENCIES CORRELATE WITH PERSONALITY TYPES? http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/aera.html
Bass, Bernard M. (1990) Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research and Managerial Applications. 3rd Edition. NY: The Free Press, A Division of Macmillan, Inc.
Benfara, R and J. Knox (1991) Understanding Your Management Style. Lexington, MASS: Lexington Books.
Boje (2000a) Four Voices of Leadership
Boje (2000b) Existential Leadership
Boje (2000c) Leadership out of the box
Boje (2001) Spirituality and M-B - more advance study guide.
Chow, Thomas (2000). A Directional Theory of the Enneagram or, Karen Horney- squared. Enneagram Monthly (January issue). http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~tchou/Theory20.htm
Daniels, David & Virginia Price (2000). The Essential Enneagram: The definitive personality test and self-discovery guide. San Francisco, Ca: Harper, A Division of Harper Collins Publishers.
Ginn, C.W, and D. L. Sexton (1990). "A Comparison of the Personality Type Dimensions of the 1987 inc. 500 Company Founders/CEOs with Those of Slower-Growth Firms," Journal of Business Venturing 5(5), 313-326.
Gray, R. M. (1996) Archetypal Explorations: An Integrative Approach to Human Behavior. London: Routledge.
Haley, Usha C. V. (1997). Chapter 7, The MBTI and decision-making styles: Identifying and managing cognitive trails in strategic decision making. pp. 187-223 in Catherine Fitzgerald & Linda K. Kirby (Eds.). Developing Leaders: Research and applications in psychological type and leadership development: Integrating Reality and Vision, Mind and Heart. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing.
Haley, Usha C. V. & Stephen A. Stumpf (1989). Cognitive trials in strategic decision-making linking theories of personalities and cognitions. Journal of Management Studies. Vo. 26 (5): 477- 497.
Keirsey, D. and M. Bates (1978) Please Understand Me. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis
Kiersey, D. http://www.keirsey.com/
Kroeger, O. and J. Thuesen (1992) Type Talk at Work. NY: Delacorte Press.
Layman, E. & J. Guyden (1997) "Reducing Your Risk of Burnout," Health Care Supervisor Vol. 15, no. 3: 57-69.
Oldham, John M., and Lois B. Morris (1995). The New Personality Self-Portrait: Why You Think, Work, Love, and Act the Way You Do. Rev. ed. New York: Bantam.
Mason, Richard O. & Ian I. Mitroff (1981) Challenging strategic planning assumptions. NY: Wiley.
Mattlin, J. , E. Wethington, & R. Kessler (1990)
"Situational Determinants of
Coping and Coping Effectiveness," Journal of Health and Social Behavior 31: 103- 122.
Mitroff, Ian (1983) "Archetypal social systems analysis: On the deeper structure of social systems." Academy of Management Review. Vol. 8 (3): 387-97.
Mitroff, Ian I. and Mitroff, D. D. (1980). Personality and problem solving: Making links visible. Journal of Experimental Learning and Simulation, 2: 111-119.
Myers, L. B. & Isabel Briggs (1980) Gifts Differing. Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
Nutt, Paul C. (1986). Decision style and its impact on managers and management. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 29, 341-366.
O'Roark, A. M. (1986) "Bass-Valenzi decision modes and Myers-Briggs dominant functions: Management perspectives and preferences." Paper, International Congress of Applied Psychology, Jerusalem.
Rutzky, Jacques (????). The Trickster Archetype in Psychotherapy with Alcoholics and Addicts
Schweiger, D. M. & Jago, A. G. (1982) "Problem-solving styles and participative decision making." Psychology Reports. 50, 1311-1316.
Thompson, B. & G. Borrello (1986) "Construct Validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator," Educational and Psychological Measurement 46: 745-752. 19.
Thompson, W. (1971) At the Edge of History. NY: Harper and Row.
For More Information on Leadership - Consult In and Out of the Leadership Box
It is time to Jump out of the Leadership Box, and get beyond the dualities of M-B, and head into the land of the postmodern and the leadership theater of the absurd that is our daily condition. Boje (2000c) Leadership out of the box